Beyond the Woodfuel Crisis : People, land and trees in Africa book cover
1st Edition

Beyond the Woodfuel Crisis
People, land and trees in Africa

ISBN 9781138987838
Published October 19, 2016 by Routledge
324 Pages

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Book Description

People scratching a living from parched land, women walking miles for scraps of firewood are both familiar images of Africa. But, in many places, people, with the help of governments and aid agencies, are putting the land into good shape, growing more food and creating a healthy cover of trees. This book joins the �literature of hope� by looking at these advances from the viewpoint of the energy crisis of the poor. This crisis can only be solved by going beyond the narrow confines of energy to consider all the needs of local people and the potential for change. Drawing on a wide range of case histories, the authors describe the gains in farming and forestry � and woodfuel supply � that have come about through this broader, people-centered approach. They also write about woodfuel prices, markets and other key elements of survival strategies for the cities. Huge efforts will be needed to recover from the failures of the past, but Leach and Mearns show that important lessons are at last being learned and that new roads to success can be mapped. Originally published in 1988

Table of Contents

Abbreviations Introduction Woodfuel Gaps and the Death of the Forests Where do Woodfuels Come From? Giving Scarcity a Human Face Part I: Rural Areas 1. Trees for Rural People Popular Knowledge and Empowerment Farmer-led Initiatives Supporting Local Initiatives The Economics of Rural Trees New Thinking on Tree Economics 2. Forestry for Land Management Definitions and Types of Agroforestry Options for Agricultural Areas Options for Livestock-keeping Areas A Note of Caution 3. Constrains on Change Household Economics, Labour and Conflicting Needs Tenure and Rights Gender Roles 4. Meeting the Constraints Governments and the Legacy of History Crossing Institutional Bridges Institutional Partnerships Building on Local Organizations New Government Structures The Extension Challenge Towards Project Design 5. Rural Cases 1. Farmer-led Initiatives in Shinyanga, Tanzania 2. Paddocks in Mwenezi, Zimbabwe 3. Building on Indigenous Practices in Turkana, Kenya 4. The Koumpentoum Entente, Senegal 5. Learning together: Forestry Developments in Konso, Ethiopia 6. Research in the Mazvihwa, Zimbabwe 7. Chitemene Shifting Cultivation, Zambia 8. Alley Farming and Dairy Development in Kenya 9. The Kenya Woodfuel Development Programme 10. Water Harvesting in Yatenga, Burkina Faso 11. Community Forestry in Northern Sudan 12. The Majia Valley Windbreaks, Niger 13. The HAD0 Project in Kondoa, Tanzania 14. Woodlots or Fuelsticks in Kenya? 15. Agroforestry in Koro village, Mali 16. Agroforestry Diagnosis and Design in Kathama, Kenya 17. The Village Afforestation Programme in Tanzania 18. Agroforestry Outreach in Haiti 19. Co-operative Forest Management in Guesselbodi, Niger 20. Refugee Forestry in Somalia: the 'Step' Plan 21. Putting Trees into Non-tree Projects in Kenya 22. The Naam Movement in Burkina Faso 23. Project Campfire, Zimbabwe 24. Rapid Rural Appraisal in Welo, Ethiopia Part II: Urban Centres 6. Paying the Price Urban Issues and Contexts Goals for Urban Energy Initiatives Soaring Prices? Woodfuel Markets Towards more Efficient Markets 7. Trees for the Cities Taxing and Guarding the Forests Managing the Forests Community Control of the Forests Peri-urban Plantations 8. Fuel Switching and Saving Is the Energy Transition Happening? Fuel Switching and Urban Size Fuel Switching and Income Fuel Prices Fuel Switching versus Fuel Saving Encouraging Fuel Saving Encouraging Fuel Switching Foreign Exchange Constraints? 9. Urban Cases 1. The Firewood Trade in Gaborone, Botswana 2. The Charcoal Trade in Tanzania 3. The Charcoal Business in the Sudan 4. Household Fuel Use and Switching in Dar es Salaam 5. Forest Taxes in Malawi 6. Successful Forest Controls in Rwanda References and Notes

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