Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds: A Pharmacological Reference Guide to Sites of Action and Biological Effects, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds

A Pharmacological Reference Guide to Sites of Action and Biological Effects, 1st Edition

By Gideon Polya

CRC Press

864 pages

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Description

When introduced to the human body, bioactive metabolites produced by plants for self defense bind to particular biochemical targets, most notably to proteins involved in signaling by hormones and neurotransmitters. This, essentially, is the basis for the effects of herbal medicine. While herbal medicine preparations may act by complex synergistic interactions, molecular explanations of herbal medicine efficacy and side effects ultimately require definition of the biochemical targets of individual plant bioactive constituents.

Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds is a comprehensive and user-friendly reference guide to biochemical targets of plant defensive compounds. With 500 pages of tables, it presents a mine of succinctly summarized information relating to bioactive compound structures, plant sources, biochemical targets and physiological effects that can be readily accessed via chemical compound, plant genus, plant common name and subject indexes. With introductory chapters providing reviews of the structural diversity of plant defensive compounds and biochemistry, this book is an invaluable reference for biomedical professionals in the fields of alternative/complementary medicine, natural product chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology, and botany.

Reviews

"This book contains a wealth of data on the chemical structure, source, biochemical targets, and physiological effects of the bioactive compounds in plants."

- JACS, 2004

"Personally, I found this to be a valuable text for students, academics and researchers. I am pleased to have it in my library and am of the opinion that it should be on the shelves of all libraries of higher education and research institutes."

-JoHannes van Staden, South African Journal of Botany

Table of Contents

PLANT DEFENSIVE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR MOLECULAR TARGETS

Introduction

Organization and Scope of the Book

Description of the Tables

Using the Tables

The Structural Diversity of Plant Defensive Compounds

Plant Alkaloids

Plant Phenolics

Plant Terpenes

Other Plant Compounds

BIOCHEMISTRY - THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

Introduction - Water-based Life

Protein Structure

Enzymes and Ligand-binding Proteins

Metabolic Strategies

Inhibition of Biochemical Processes by Plant Defensive Compounds

NEUROTRANSMITTER- AND HORMONE-GATED ION CHANNELS

Introduction - Electrical Signaling in Excitable Cells

Ionotropic Neurotransmitter Receptors - Neurotransmitter-gated Ion Channels

Structure and Function of Ionotropic Receptors

ION PUMPS, LIGAND- AND VOLTAGE-GATED ION CHANNELS

Introduction

Ion Pumps

Voltage-gated Na+ Channels

Ligand-Regulated and Voltage-gated K+ Channels

Voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels

Ligand-gated Ca2+ Channels

Chloride Transport and Voltage-regulated Chloride Channels

PLASMA MEMBRANE G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS

Introduction - Signaling Via Heterotrimeric G Proteins

G Protein-coupled Hormone and Neurotransmitter Receptors

Hormones and Neurotransmitters Acting Via G Protein-coupled Receptors

Activation of Specific G Protein-coupled Receptors

Leucocyte- and Inflammation-related G Protein-linked Receptors

Other G Protein-coupled Receptors

NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTERS AND CONVERTERS

Introduction

Synthesis of Neurotransmitters

Release of Neurotransmitters from Synaptic Vesicles

Re-uptake of Neurotransmitters into Neurons and Synaptic Vesicles

Neurotransmitter Degradation

CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-, Ca2+- AND NITRIC OXIDE-BASED SIGNALING

Introduction

Ca2+- and Calmodulin-dependent Enzymes

Adenylyl Cyclase

Membrane-bound and Soluble Guanylyl Cyclases

Nitric Oxide Synthesis

Cyclic AMP- and Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinases

Protein Kinase Homologies and Phosphoprotein Phosphatases

Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases

SIGNAL-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES

Introduction

Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase

Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase

Protein Kinase C

Ca2+ -calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinases

AMP-dependent Protein Kinase

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

Protein Kinase B

Cytokine Activation of the JAK/STAT Pathway

Cell Cycle Control

Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases

Other Protein Kinases

Phosphoprotein Phosphatases

GENE EXPRESSION, CELL DIVISION AND APOPTOSIS

Introduction

Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes

Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes

RNA Processing and Translation

Control of Translation

Protein Processing and Post-translational Modification

Protein Targeting

Cell Division and Apoptosis

HIV-1 Infection and HIV-1 Replication

Plant Compounds Interfering with Gene Expression

TASTE AND SMELL PERCEPTION, PHEROMONES AND SEMIOCHEMICALS

Introduction

Sweet Taste Receptors

Bitter Taste Receptors

Salty Taste Perception

Sour Taste Perception

Umami (Glutamate Taste Perception)

Odorant Perception

Animal Pheromones and Other Animal Bioactivities Produced by Plants

Other Plant Semiochemicals Affecting Animal Behavior

Odoriferous Animal Metabolites of Ingested Plant Compounds

AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS OF CYTOSOLIC HORMONE RECEPTORS

Introduction

Steroid Hormones

Non-steroid Cytosolic Hormone Receptor Ligands

Plant Bioactives Affecting Cyctosolic Receptor-mediated Signaling

POLYNUCLEOTIDES, POLYSACCHARIDES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND MEMBRANES

Introduction

Polynucleotides

Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides

Phospholipids and Membranes

INHIBITORS OF DIGESTION AND METABOLISM

Introduction

Glycohydrolases

Proteases

Glycolysis and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

Mitochondrial Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Gluconeogenesis

Solute Translocation

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIABETIC PLANT COMPOUNDS

Introduction

Adhesion and Movement of Inflammatory Leucocytes

Chemokines

Phagocytosis

Kinins, Cytokines, Platelet Activating Factor and Eicosanoids

Plant-derived Anti-inflammatory Compounds

Diabetes Mellitus and Plant Antidiabetic Compounds

Summary

Appendix

Bibliography

Compound Index

Plant Genus Index

Plant Common Names Index

Subject Index

Abbreviations

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED071000
MEDICAL / Pharmacology
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General