Biofueled Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines  book cover
1st Edition

Biofueled Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

ISBN 9781138746541
Published September 20, 2017 by CRC Press
288 Pages

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Book Description

Biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and biodiesel have more desirable physico-chemical properties than base petroleum fuels (diesel and gasoline), making them more suitable for use in internal combustion engines. The book begins with a comprehensive review of biofuels and their utilization processes and culminates in an analysis of biofuel quality and impact on engine performance and emissions characteristics, while discussing relevant engine types, combustion aspects and effect on greenhouse gases. It will facilitate scattered information on biofuels and its utilization has to be integrated as a single information source. The information provided in this book would help readers to update their basic knowledge in the area of "biofuels and its utilization in internal combustion engines and its impact Environment and Ecology". It will serve as a reference source for UG/PG/Ph.D. Doctoral Scholars for their projects / research works and can provide valuable information to Researchers from Academic Universities and Industries.

Key Features:

• Compiles exhaustive information of biofuels and their utilization in internal combustion engines.

• Explains engine performance of biofuels

• Studies impact of biofuels on greenhouse gases and ecology highlighting integrated bio-energy system.

• Discusses fuel quality of different biofuels and their suitability for internal combustion engines.

• Details effects of biofuels on combustion and emissions characteristics.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Biofuels

1.1 Overview of Fossil fuels

1.2 Scenario of Demand-Supply of fossil fuels

1.3 Role of Internal combustion engines for mass and passenger transportation

1.4 Applications of Internal Combustion Engines in decentralized power generation sectors

1.5 Off-road applications

1.6 Emission load in urban cities

1.7 Need of Bioenergy / Biofuels

1.8 Potential of Biofuel resources

1.9 Biofuels: First generation, Second generation and Third generation

1.10 Impact of Bioenergy on Ecosystem

1.11 Impact of Bioenergy on Environment

1.12 Comparison of Bioenergy with other renewable energy sources

1.13 First and second generation biofuels

1.14 Biofuel: Carbon Neutral Fuel

1.15 Biofuel Policy

Solved Numerical Problems



Chapter 2 Production of Bio-fuels

2.1 Definition of Biomass and Biofuel

2.2 Raw Biomass as Energy Source and its Limitation as Fuel

2.3 Classification of Biomass

2.4 Resources for Production of Bio-methanol

2.5 Bio methanol

2.6 Ethanol

2.7 Butanol

2.8 Higher Alcohol Fuels

2.9 Bio-methane/Biogas

2.10 Bio-Hydrogen

2.11 Biodiesel

2.12 Fisher-Tropsch Diesel

2.13 Di-Methyl Ether



Chapter 3 Bio-fuel Quality for Combustion Engines

3.1 Properties of Gasoline fuel and their Definition

3.2 Properties of Diesel Fuel and their Definition

3.3 Bio-fuels for Spark Ignition Engines

3.4 Bio-fuels for Compression Ignition Engines

3.5 Methanol

3.6 Ethanol

3.7 Butanol

3.8 Biogas and Enriched Biogas

3.9 Hydrogen

3.10 Biodiesel

3.11 Fisher-Tropsch Diesel

3.12 Dimethyl Ether



Chapter 4 Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines

4.1 Introduction

4.2 First Law of Thermodynamics

4.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics

4.4 Otto Cycle

4.5 Constant Pressure Cycle (Diesel Cycle)

4.6 Dual Cycle

4.7 Two and Four Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

4.8 Classification of Internal Combustion Engines

4.9 General Specification of Internal Combustion Engines

4.10 Automotive Vehicles

4.11 Power Genset Engines with Alternator

4.12 Comparison of internal combustion engines with Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine Engines

4.13 Selection of heat engines for industrial applications

4.14 Comparison between spark ignition engines and compression ignition engines

4.15 NOx emission reduction techniques

4.16 Particulate Matter (PM) Emission Reduction Techniques

Solved Numerical Problems



Chapter 5 Basic Processes of Internal Combustion Engines

5.1 Spark Ignition Engines

5.2 Compression Ignition Engines

5.3 Analysis of IC Engine process using model and simulation



Chapter 6 Utilization of Bio-fuels in Spark Ignition Engines

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Liquid Bio-fuels

6.3 Utilization of Methanol in Spark ignition engines

6.4 Utilization of Ethanol in Spark ignition engines

6.5 Utilization of Butanol in Spark ignition engines

6.6 Utilization of Raw Biogas in Spark Ignition Engines

6.7 Utilization of Enriched Biogas in Spark Ignition Engines

6.8 Utilization of Hydrogen in Spark Ignition Engines

Solved Numerical problems



Chapter 7 Utilization of Bio-fuels in Compression Ignition Engines

7.1 General Working Principle of Compression Ignition Engines

7.2 Emissions

7.3 Utilization of Bio-diesel in Compression Ignition Engines

7.4 Utilization of Fisher-Tropsch Diesel in Compression Ignition Engines

7.5 Utilization of Dimethyl Ether in Compression Ignition Engines


Solved Numerical Problems


Chapter 8 Bio-fuelled reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Engine

8.1 Introduction to Heterogeneous Charge, Pre-mixed charge, Homogenous Charge and Reactivity Charge

8.2 Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)

8.3 Case Study: (Fuel: Diesel/CNG/HCNG), (Engine mode: Dual fuel RCCI)

Solved Numerical Problems



Chapter 9 Effect of Bio-fuels on Greenhouse Gases

9.1 Introduction to Greenhouse Gases

9.2 Greenhouse effect by GHG gases in the Atmosphere

9.3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines

9.4 Whether Bio-fuels are Carbon Neutral Fuel or Not?

9.5 Carbon dioxide (CO2) Emission from Internal Combustion Engines

9.6 Effect of gaseous fuels (CNG/Hydrogen) on CO2 in a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine (CNG-Diesel, Hydrogen-Diesel)

9.7 Effect of carbon content in fuel on CO2 emission

9.8 Effect of energy efficiency on CO2 emission

9.9 Methane (CH4) emission from internal combustion engines

9.10 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission form internal combustion engines

Solved Numerical Problems

Unsolved Problems



Chapter 10 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions



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Dr.K.A.Subramanian is currently working as Associate Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and he is also a former Scientist. His research area includes internal combustion engines and alternative fuels and obtained his Doctoral degree from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. He was nominated for participating the project Study Mission on "Energy Efficiency", sponsored by the Asian Productivity Organization, Japan in 2009. He as a program coordinator has conducted several short term courses under National level Quality Improvement Program for some Faulty Members from other Universities / Engineering Institution. He is a member of many professional societies including National Productivity Organization, Society of Automotive Engineers and Combustion Institute (Indian Section).

He is presently an M.Tech. Coordinator, CES, IIT Delhi for two Post Graduate Programmes such as M.Tech. in Energy Studies and M.Tech. in Energy and Environment Management. He has developed some master level courses including Hydrogen energy, Emission Control in Internal Combustion Engines and Zero Emission Vehicles. He teaches many number of courses including Alternative fuels for Transportation, Hydrogen Energy, Energy, Ecology and environment, Heat transfer, Power plant engineering, Cogeneration and Energy Efficiency, Fuel Technology and Energy Audit.

He has finished many number of sponsored research projects in the area of utilization of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines / vehicles. He has recently developed the technology for utilization of hydrogen in spark ignition engines (with reduced Oxides of Nitrogen emission and back-fire) for electrical power generation with coloration of premium original engine manufacture, an Oil industry’s R&D Centre and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. He has also developed a technology and filed a patent in the area of utilization of biodiesel-compressed natural gas in a compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode. He has involved in other research projects which include biogas vehicle, alcohol fuelled engine and energy efficiency improvement using oxy-combustion. He has both individually and jointly guided about eight Doctoral Scholars and is currently guiding about ten Doctoral scholars. He has guided about forty five M.Tech. Scholars for their research project work. He has published about 100 research papers in reputed international Journals, Symposium, Conferences and Workshop (about 953 citation as per Google Scholar). He is co-author of the Book "Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilization in Combustion Engines" published by CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), 2013.