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1st Edition

Biological Effects of Surfactants




ISBN 9780849325267
Published December 15, 2005 by CRC Press
304 Pages 5 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Understanding the role of aquatic biota and the impact of pollution and chemical substances that enter aquatic ecosystems is crucial to the assessment, prevention, and remediation of damaged environments. Biological Effects of Surfactants synthesizes the most important findings from hundreds of articles and the author's current experiments on the biological effects of synthetic surfactants and detergents on individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. This book offers a new perspective of the hazards of pollution.

The book draws upon concepts in hydrobiology, biogeochemical cycling, and the assimilative capacity of water-beyond the self-purification capabilities of bacteria and nutrient cycling-to examine the effects of anionic, non-ionic, and cationic surfactants as well as detergent mixtures on a wide range of organisms including bacteria, cyanobacteria, flagellates, algae, higher plants, and invertebrates. The author, a distinguished member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, establishes new quantitative characteristics of the effects and presents study results reflecting newly discovered phenomena. While proposing and substantiating new priorities and approaches for testing, assessing, and characterizing the biological activities and hazards of substances, he illustrates how the data obtained can be used to develop effective environmental remediation and protection measures to improve water quality.

Biological Effects of Surfactants lays an excellent foundation for scientists to explore how hazardous wastes are absorbed in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, determine what is required for remediation and restoring water quality, and design the best approach to counteract the toxic effects of manmade surfactants using biological methods, including phytoremediation.

Table of Contents

Foreword by Professor M.E. Vinogradov, Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Professor V.D. Fedorov
Foreword by Dr. Steven C. McCutcheon
Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
Preface
Introduction

ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS AND SYNTHETIC SURFACTANTS AS POLLUTANTS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
Criteria and Priorities in Assessing the Hazardous Impacts on Aquatic Biota
Ecological Hazard and Ecosystemic Consequences of the Effect of Anthropogenic Substances on Hydrobionts
Biological Effects of Substances and the Need of Refining the Arsenal of Biotesting Methods
Substantiating the Need for Further Research into Biological Effects of Synthetic Surfactants
Ambiguity of Biological Effects Caused by Surfactants
Pollution of Aquatic Ecosystems by Synthetic Surfactants
Synthetic Surfactants and Self-Purification of Water Including its Filtration by Mollusks

ORGANISMS AND METHODS
Organisms: Substantiation of Choice and Aspects of Methods Used
Chemical Substances Used

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF WATERS CONTAINING ANIONIC SURFACTANTS
Biological Effects of Alkyl Sulfates. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)
Biological Effects of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonates (ABS)
Biological Effects of High-Polymer Synthetic Surfactants
Concluding Remarks

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF WATERS CONTAINING NONIONOGENIC SURFACTANTS
Biological effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants in a System With Bacteria
Biological Effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants on Phytoplankton Organisms
Biological Effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants on Higher Eukaryotes
Biological Effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants and Their Hazards to Aquatic Ecosystems

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF WATERS CONTAINING CATIONIC SURFACTANTS
Biological Effects of Ethonium
Biological Effects of Tetradecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (TDTMA)
Biological Effects of Benzethonium Chloride
Other Data on the Biological Activities of Cationic Surfactants

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT-CONTAINING MIXTURES AND OTHER PREPARATIONS
Impact of Aquatic Media with Surfactant-Containing Mixtures on Hydrobionts: Earlier Works
New results on the Impact of Surfactant-Containing Mixtures on Autotrophic Organisms
New results on the Impact of Surfactant-Containing Mixtures on Heterotrophic Organisms
Assessment of the Biological Activities of Other Preparations and Samples
Some Concluding Remarks

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SYNTHETIC SURFACTANTS AND PARTICIPATION OF HYDROBIONTS IN WATER PURIFICATION
Self-purification of Water and the Role of Hydrobionts in Aquatic Ecosystems
Water Purification and Some Applied Problems
Anthropogenic Impact on Hydrobionts: Assessment of the Ecological Hazards

Generalizing Remarks
Conclusions
References
Addendum
Subject Index

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