Biological Performance of Materials: Fundamentals of Biocompatibility, Fourth Edition, 4th Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biological Performance of Materials

Fundamentals of Biocompatibility, Fourth Edition, 4th Edition

By Jonathan Black, Jonathan Black

CRC Press

520 pages | 75 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2005-12-20
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Description

Bioengineers need a thorough grounding in biocompatibility - the biological performance of materials. Until now, there were no publications suitable for a neophyte in the field; prior publications were either not comprehensive or focused on rather narrow interests. Drawing on the author's 35 years of experience as a teacher, researcher, and consultant in biomaterials science and engineering (BSE), Biological Performance of Materials: Fundamentals of Biocompatibility, Fourth Edition focuses primarily on principles of biological performance at a relatively fundamental level, analyzing interactions between living organisms and nonliving materials used in medical devices - the subject that sets BSE apart as a distinct field of investigation.

Following an introductory section, the book is divided into three sections: the material response to biological systems, host response to biomaterials, and test methods for determining biological response in vitro as well as in animal models and clinical settings.

Supplemental "Interparts" summarize the physical properties of commonly used metallic, polymeric, and ceramic biomaterials. They also provide a guide to understanding the clinical performance of implanted biomaterials.

Table of Contents

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Biocompatibility: Definitions and Issues

Introduction

Biological Performance

Consensus Definitions

Discussion

The Discipline of Biomaterials

Afterword: Paradigmatic Shift

Introduction to the Biological Environment

General Considerations

Comparison of External and Internal Conditions

Problems in Definition of the Biological Environment

Elements of the Biological Environment

Implant Life History

Preimplantation Handling Effects

MATERIAL RESPONSE: FUNCTION AND

DEGRADATION OF MATERIALS

IN VIVO

Swelling and Leaching

Introduction

Fick's Laws of Diffusion

Absorption

Examples of Undesirable Absorption

Osmotic Equilibrium

Leaching

Example of Planned Leaching: Drug Release

Effects of Swelling and Leaching

Corrosion and Dissolution

Chemistry of Corrosion

Classification of Reactions

The Pourbaix Diagram

The Electrochemical Series

Corrosion Rate

Potential-Current Relationships in Corrosion

Forms of Corrosion

Corrosion in Implant Applications

Engineering Variables Affecting Corrosion Rates

Corrosion Factors Peculiar to Biological Environments

Ceramic Dissolution

Polymer Dissolution

Final Remarks

Reactions of Biological Molecules with

Biomaterial Surfaces

Introduction

Denaturation

Organometallic Compounds

Mechanical Aspects of Interfaces

Results of Interfacial Adhesion of Molecules

Effects of Charged Interfaces and Ions

Final Comments

Mechanics of Materials: Deformation and Failure

Introduction

Mechanics of Materials

Elastic Modulus

Yield Strength

Fracture Strength

Final Comment

Friction and Wear

Introduction

Friction

Lubrication

Wear

Conclusions

Interpart 1

Implant Materials: Properties

Introduction

Metals

Polymers

Ceramics

Composites

HOST RESPONSE: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IMPLANTS

The Inflammatory Process

Introduction

The Inflammatory Response

Infection

Effects of Implant Degradation Products

A Final Comment

Coagulation and Hemolysis

Introduction

The Coagulation Cascade

Approaches to Thromboresistant Materials Development

Hemolysis

Final Comments

Adaptation

Introduction

Tissue Growth Strategies

Examples of Adaptation in Implant Applications

A Final Comment on Adaptation

In Vitro Tissue Growth and Replantation

General Considerations

What Is Tissue Engineering?

The Cell-Receptor Paradigm

Matrices and Cell Sources

Thinking Twice about Tissue Engineering

Some Final Comments

Allergic Foreign Body Response

Specific vs. Nonspecific Response

Mechanisms of Immune Response

Classes of Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions Associated with Implants

Final Comment

Chemical and Foreign-Body Carcinogenesis

Definitions

Chemical Carcinogenesis

Foreign Body Carcinogenesis

Nonspecific Carcinogenesis

Evidence for Implant Carcinogenesis in Humans

Mineral Metabolism

Introduction

Iron Metabolism

Chromium Metabolism

Human Dietary Metal Intake

Systemic Distribution and Excretion

Introduction

Movement of Solid Bodies

Transport of Dissolved Species

Distribution and Excretion of Dissolved Species

Final Comment

Effects of Degradation Products on Remote

Organ Function

Introduction

Examples of Systemic Effects

A Review of Systemic Aspects of Host Response

A Final Comment

Interpart 2

Implant Materials: Clinical Performance

Introduction

An Example: Total Hip Replacement

A Final Word

METHODS OF TESTING FOR BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE

In Vitro Test Methods

Test Strategies

In Vitro Test Types

Tissue Culture Tests

Blood Contact Tests

Final Comments

In Vivo Implant Models

Introduction

Test Types

A Final Comment

Clinical Testing of Implant Materials

Goal of Clinical Trials

Design of Clinical Trials

Conclusions from Clinical Trials

Aspects of the Decision for General Clinical Use

Final Comments

Standardization and Regulation of

Implant Materials

Historical Perspective

Drug Standardization Activities

Biomaterials Standardization Activities

U.S. Federal Regulation of Medical Devices and Biomaterials

Regulation of Materials for Implants

The Biomaterials Supply "Crisis"

Design and Selection of Implant Materials

Introduction

The Design Process

The Value of Prospective Design

Clinical Performance of Biomaterials

Historical Aspects

Procedures for Device Retrieval and Analysis

Common Concerns about Device Retrieval and Analysis

Proposed National Implant Data Retrieval and Analysis

Program (NIDRA)

Elements of a NIDRA System

Autopsy Retrieval Studies

Concluding Remarks

Glossary

Introduction

Glossary

Deprecated Terms

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science