Biology of the Southern Ocean: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biology of the Southern Ocean

2nd Edition

By George A. Knox

CRC Press

640 pages | 291 B/W Illus.

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Description

First published in 1993, The Biology of the Southern Ocean has been referred to as international research at its best and an invaluable reference. Drawing on the considerable volume of information published in the last ten years, this second edition retains the format that made the first edition a popular bestseller, while updating the information with the latest research results available.

The book begins with a description of the physico-chemical environment and, in a logical sequence, covers phytoplankton and primary production, the sea ice microbial communities and the secondary consumers, the zooplankton. The author includes an extended chapter on the biology and ecology of Antarctic krill that highlights its central position in the Southern Ocean food web. A series of chapters consider the higher consumers, nekton (with an emphasis on cephalopods) fish, seals, whales, and seabirds. The following chapters explore selected ecosystem components; the benthic communities, life beneath the fast ice and ice shelves, recent advances in understanding decomposition processes, and the role of bacteria and protozoa.

The author synthesizes ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on the pelagic ecosystem. He covers resource exploitation, the impact of such exploitation on the marine ecosystem, and the problems involved in the management of the living resources. His epilogue summarizes the extent to which our understanding of the functioning of the Antarctic marine ecosystem has changed in the last 50 years; for example, there has been a dramatic change in our view of krill and its role in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. The book concludes with the statement that research carried out under the AGCS Programme and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) will continue to provide critical information on the functioning of Antarctic marine ecosystems.

Intended for all those with an ongoing interest in Antarctic research, conservation, and management, this volume represents one of the most authoritative resources in the field as it covers all aspects of this important marine ecosystem.

Reviews

"This book is a tribute to Knox’s tenacity. It remains the only comprehensive volume on the biology of the southern ocean published anywhere, and it is still by a single author. Anyone going, planning to go, or hoping to go to the Antarctic should become familiar with this book."

– Gerald Gooyman, Biomedicine & Biotechnology, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, in The Quarterly Review of Biology, Dec 2007, Vol. 82, No. 4

". . . gives us a perspective on Southern Ocean biology that is unique. This book, like its predecessor, is sure to become a standard, reference for Southern Ocean research."

– Eileen E. Hofmann, in Antarctic Science, 2008, Vol. 20, No. 2

"That a single author could compile a work of such breadth is astounding, even considering that his involvement in Antarctic research dates back to 1960. With its comprehensive coverage and vast list of references, this is an indispensable reference for natural science libraries. Summing Up: Essential."

– G.C. Jensen, University of Washington, in Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, Oct 2007, Vol. 45, No. 2

Table of Contents

THE SOUTHERN OCEAN

Introduction

The Evolution of the Southern Ocean

Bathymetry

Climate

Ice Cover

Circulation Patterns and Water Masses

Some Regional Hydrographic Features

Bottom Water Formation

PHYTOPLANKTON AND PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Introduction

Data Base

Species Composition and Distribution

Latitudinal Zonation of Planktonic Subsystems

Phytoplankton Biomass

Primary production

Seasonal and Geographic Variation of Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production

Factors Affecting Primary Production

Growth Rates

Heterotrophic Nutrition

A model of Phytoplankton Production

SEA ICE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

Introduction

Sea ice as a Habitat

Sea ice Communities

Environmental Factors and Sea Ice Microalgal Physiology

Sea Ice Micro- and Meiofauna

Dynamics of Sea Ice Microbial Communities

ZOOPLANKTON

Introduction

Species Composition and Distribution

Life History and Growth

Vertical Migration

Swarming

Feeding

Biomass and Production

Ecophysiology

Strategies for Winter Survival

Biotic and Abiotic Factors Affecting Distribution Patterns

Life History and Growth

Vertical Migration

Swarming

Feeding

Biomass and Production

Strategies for Winter Survival

KRILL

Introduction

Species of Euphausiids

Life History and Growth

Krill Aggregations

Distribution and Abundance

Feeding and Energy Expenditure

Krill Production

NEKTON

Introduction

Species Composition and Distribution

Cephalopods

FISHES

Introduction

Species Composition and Distribution

Morphological and Physiological adaptations

Reproduction and growth

Age, growth, mortality and biomass estimates

Factors controlling the distribution and abundance of Antarctic fishes

SEALS

Introduction

Species Composition and Distribution

Abundance

Social Organization and Reproductive Behaviour

Feeding Ecology

Reproduction, Growth and Development

Population Dynamics

WHALES

Introduction

Species Composition

Distribution, General Life-Histories and Migration

Segregation

Reproduction

Feeding Ecology

Bioenergetics

Population Dynamics

Role in the Ecosystem

BIRDS

Introduction

Species Composition and Distribution

Abundance

Breeding Biology

Non-Breeding Biology

Food and Feeding Ecology

Energetics

Population Structure and Dynamics

Role in the Ecosystem

BENTHIC COMMUNITIES

Introduction

The Antarctic Benthic Environment

Littoral Communities

Shallow Sublittoral Communities

Epifaunal Communities

Infaunal Communities

Shelf and Upper Slope Communities

Deep Sea Communities

Microbial Communities

Meiofauna

Biogeography and Origin of the Benthic Fauna

Factors Responsible for Shaping the Antarctic Benthos

Biogeographical Schemes for the Antarctic Region

Diversity, Abundance and Biomass

Food and Feeding

Bentho-Pelagic Coupling

Ecological Strategies

THE FAST ICE AND ICE SHELVES

Introduction

The Coastal Fast Ice Environment

Primary Production

Sedimentation and Resuspension

Zooplankton

The Sympagic Community

The Platelet Ice Community

The Cryopelagic Community

The Ross and McMurdo Ice Shelves

ICE EDGE PROCESSES

Introduction

Ice Edge Habitat

Ice Edge Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production

Potential Causes of Phytoplankton Blooms

A Model of Ice Edge Bloom Dynamics

Bacterioplankton

Ice Edge Microheterotrophs

Ice Edge Zooplankton and Nekton

Ice edge vertebrates

The Importance of the Ice Edge in the Ecology of the Southern Ocean

DECOMPOSITION AND THE ROLE OF BACTERIA AND PROTOZOA

Introduction

Quantities and Sources of Organic Matter

Sedimentation of POM

Biogenic Fluxes in the Water Column

Bacteria

Viruses

Protozoa

Bacteria-Protozoa-POM Interactions

The Microbial Loop

Nutrient Cycling

ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS

Introduction

Pelagic Zonation

Phytoplankton and Primary Production

Food Webs

Ecosystem Models

Southern Ocean Variability and Its Impact on the Pelagic Ecosystem

RESOURCE EXPLOITATION

Introduction

Krill

Fishes

Seals

Whales

ECOSYSTEM CHANGES RESULTING FROM RESOURCE EXPLOITATION

Introduction

Ecosystem Changes Resulting from the Decline in Whale Stocks

Potential Ecosystem Changes Which Might Result from Future Resource Exploitation

MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES

Introduction

The Convention of the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)

Ecosystem Approach to the Management of the Living Resources of the Southern Ocean

The Role of Modelling Studies

Monitoring Indicators of Possible Ecological Changes in the Antarctic Marine Ecosystem

Experimental Fishing as a Management Tool

Alternative Management Strategies

NEW! ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

Introduction

Biological Hazards of Ultraviolet Radiation

UV Tolerance Mechanisms

Impacts of Ultraviolet Radiation on Antarctic Marine Biota

Conclusions

NEW! GLOBAL WARMING AND ANTARCTIC MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction

The Physical Environment

Evidence of Global Warming in the Southern Ocean

The Potential Impact of Further Global Warming on Antarctic Marine Ecosystems

Potential Change in Ecosystem Structure and Function

NEW! HUMAN IMPACT

Introduction

Impact of Stations and Field Camps

Impact of Waste Disposal

Waste Disposal

Disturbance of Nesting Seabirds

Contamination of Marine Biota by Pollutants

Impact of Oil Spills

Impact of Resource Exploitation

Epilogue

References

About the Series

CRC Marine Biology Series

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT010000
NATURE / Ecology
SCI031000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
SCI039000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Marine Biology