The establishment of precise and reliable biomarker tests for the early stages of cardiovascular disease is of great importance and can be the cornerstone in the prevention of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, some biomarkers may provide important information concerning the pathogenesis of CVD or appear to be useful in risk stratification, in CVD diagnosis, or in monitoring therapy; many others may be risk factors themselves, representing therefore potential targets of therapy. The ideal biomarker should have the following characteristics: highly sensitive, specific, reliable, accessible, standardized, dependable, cost effective, and easily interpretable by clinicians.
The present book focuses on the presentation and evaluation of the most promising classical and novel biochemical markers used in CVD (coronary artery disease, hypertension, heart failure, hyperlipidemia, peripheral arterial disease). The underlying pathophysiological characteristics of each biomarker, as well as potential clinical implications in daily practice are reviewed in this book.
Part I: Classical biomarkers: C-reactive protein in cardiovascular disease. Biomarkers in early atherosclerosis. Biomarkers in essential hypertension. Biomarkers in hyperlipidemia. Cardiac biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes. Biomarkers in congestive heart failure. Biomarkers of Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Embolism. Coronary artery by-pass grafting and biomarkers. Biomarkers of peripheral arterial disease. Biomarkers in cardiorenal syndrome. Cardiac arrhythmias: is there a role for biomarkers?. The role of biomarkers in the antiplatelet treatment. Part II: Novel biomarkers: Novel biomarkers used in the assessment of acute coronary syndrome. Novel cardiac biomarkers and application to heart failure. The role of genetic traits in cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs: a novel cardiac biomarker.