Biomass for Biofuels: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biomass for Biofuels

1st Edition

Edited by Katarzyna Bulkowska, Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin, Ewa Klimiuk, Artur Pawlowski, Tomasz Pokoj

CRC Press

188 pages

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Description

Biomass is a widely available resource, that can be characterized by its high production potential. Enabling the production of different types of biofuels, biomass can be used in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. There is extensive knowledge of the biofuel production process, and technologies enabling the production of biofuels with high caloric value and better physicochemical properties are developed. The biggest barrier in the development of a biofuels market is not the lack of know-how, but economic and political aspects.

Biomass for Biofuels presents technological aspects of biomass conversion into advanced biofuels. Also discussed are the influence of growing biofuels markets on the natural environment and social relations as well as economic aspects of acquisition of biomass and its processing into biofuels. In addition biomass characteristics are presented. A definition is provided, and its chemical composition and properties detailed. The focus is on lignocellulosic biomass, whose complex structure is a limiting factor for biofuels production via biological processes. For that reason, echanical, chemical and physicochemical methods that enable an increased availability for the microorganisms used for biomass conversion to biofuels are discussed.

Table of Contents

Introduction

1 Biofuels and sustainable development

Ewa Klimiuk &Artur Pawłowski

1 Introduction

1.1 Sustainable development

1.2 Strategies for sustainable development

2 Environmental aspects of biofuels production

2.1 Depletion of fossil fuel resources

2.2 Environment pollution

2.3 Changing the use of natural space and reducing biodiversity

3 Economic aspects of biofuels production

3.1 Cost effectiveness of biofuels production and energy balance

3.2 Energy security

3.3 Loss of government revenue

4 Social aspects of biofuels production

4.1 Rural development

4.2 Diversification of production

4.3 Risks associated with the production of biofuels

5 Prospects for the development of the biofuels market

2 Biomass for fuels – classification and composition

Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin &Artur Pawłowski

1 Definition and classification of biomass

1.1 Definition of biomass

1.2 Categories and types of biomass

2 Biomass characteristics

2.1 Criterion of expressing biomass composition

2.2 Biomass composition – proximate analysis

2.3 Biomass composition – ultimate analysis

2.4 Biochemical biomass composition

2.4.1 Characteristic of structural components in biomass

2.4.2 Lignin isolation from biomass and its characterization

3 Biomass feedstock for biofuels production

Katarzyna Bułkowska &Artur Pawłowski

1 Introduction

2 Biomass feedstock for the first and next generation biofuels production

3 Biomass feedstock for the second and third generation bioethanol production

3.1 Lignocellulosic biomass

3.1.1 Biomass from short-rotation forestry

3.1.2 Perennial herbaceous energy crops

3.1.3 Residues and waste

3.2 Algae biomass

4 Biomass feedstock for the second and third generation biodiesel production

4.1 Non-edible oil seed

4.2 Spent oil and animal fats

4.3 Algae biomass

4 Outlook for advanced biofuels

Katarzyna Bułkowska, Ewa Klimiuk &Artur Pawłowski

1 Introduction

2 Thermal processes

2.1 Biofuels from syngas

2.2 Pyrolysis

3 Microbial biofuels production

3.1 Metabolic pathways as criterion classification of advanced biofuels

3.2 Production of alcohols via fermentative pathways

3.3 Production of alcohols via non-fermentative pathways

3.4 Fatty acid-based biofuels

3.5 Isoprenoid-based biofuels

4 Olechemical processes

5 Hybrid processes

6 Properties and usage of advanced biofuels

6.1 Gasoline and alternative biofuels

6.2 Diesel and alternative biofuels

6.3 Jet fuel and alternative biofuels

5 Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into sugars: the effect of the structure of lignocellulose

Katarzyna Bułkowska, Ewa Klimiuk, Tomasz Pokój &Artur Pawłowski

1 Introduction

2 Recalcitrance nature of plant cell walls

3 Resistance of main components of lignocellulose

3.1 Cellulose

3.1.1 Structure of cellulose

3.1.2 Effect of crystallinity

3.1.3 Degree of cellulose polymerization

3.1.4 Accessible surface area

3.2 Hemicelluloses

3.2.1 Hemicelluloses as a barrier for accessibility of cellulose

3.2.2 Effect of acetyl groups

3.2.3 Stability of lignin-carbohydrate bonds

3.2.4 Stability of lignin-carbohydrate complexes

3.3 Lignin

3.3.1 Resistance of lignin to biodegradation

3.3.2 Lignin as a barrier for accessibility of cellulose

6 Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

Katarzyna Bułkowska & Ewa Klimiuk

1 Introduction

2 Mechanical method: milling

3 Chemical methods

3.1 Pretreatment with dilute acids

3.1.1 Operational condition of acid hydrolysis

3.1.2 Reactors

3.2 Pretreatment with alkaline

3.3 Organosolv fractination

3.4 Oxidative delignification

3.5 Ionic liquids

3.5.1 Pretreatment of biomass – dissolution of cellulose

3.5.2 Pretreatment of biomass – dissolution of lignin

3.5.3 Dissolution of biomass in ionic liquid

4 Physico-chemical methods

7 Fermentative and non-fermentative pathways of butanol and its analogues

Tomasz Pokój & Ewa Klimiuk

1 Introduction

2 Butanol production via fermentative pathway

2.1 Sugars and starch as substrates

2.2 Butanol production from lignocellulosic materials

2.2.1 Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP)

2.2.2 Inhibitory effect of hydrolysis by-products on clostridia

2.3 Engineering pathways to improve butanol production in solventogenic clostridia

2.4 Escherichia coli as host for butanol/isopropanol production

2.4.1 Butanol

2.4.2 Isopropanol

3 Non-fermentative alcohol fuels

3.1 Production of higher-chain alcohols using the keto acid pathways

3.1.1 Propanol and butanol

3.1.2 Isobutanol

3.1.3 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol

About the Authors

About the Editors

Katarzyna Bulkowska, PhD. Eng. received a Master’s degree in environmental protection in 2003. In 2008, she received a doctorate in environmental management at the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland, specializing in biotechnology in environmental protection. Since then, she has been employed as an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UWM Olsztyn. Her scientific interests concern the following research areas: biogas production, modeling of anaerobic digestion processes, and soil remediation. She is the co-author of 15 articles and 9 chapters in monographs. She is a member of the Polish and International Humic Substances Society and European Geosciences Union (Division: Soil System Sciences, Subdivision: Soil Pollution and Reclamation).

Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin, PhD. Eng. received a Master’s degree in Environmental Protection in 2003 and a Doctorate in Environmental Management, specializing in biotechnology in environmental protection from the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland, in 2008. He is currently employed as an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Biotechnology at the same university. His scientific interests concern three research areas: soil remediation, composting and anaerobic digestion, including digestate management. He has published 30 articles and he is the author or co-author of 6 monograph chapters, as well as 1 book chapter that was published internationally. He is a member of the Polish and International Humic Substances Society, and European Geosciences Union (Division: Soil System Sciences, Subdivision: Soil Pollution and Reclamation).

Prof. Ewa Klimiuk works at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland, at the Faculty of Environmental Sciences, in the Department of Environmental Biotechnology. Her research initially focused on advancement of wastewater treatment, including industrial wastewater and leachate from municipal landfills. She later dealt with processing wastewater and waste to produce useful products by technologies such as biogas and composting. An important part of her research in this area focuses on the microbial production of biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewater and biodiesel by-products. Throughout her work she has collaborated with numerous industrial factories and operators. An important stage of her work was employment at the Lublin University of Technology in the Department of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, from 2007-2012. Ewa has published 101 original research works in foreign and national journals, 2 monographs, and three academic books.

Assoc. Prof. Artur Pawlowski, works at Lublin University of Technology as Head of Department of Sustainable Development. He works on issues related to environmental engineering, renewable sources of energy and multidimensional nature of sustainable development. He is the author of more than 150 publications, published in English, Polish and Chinese, including the book "Sustainable Development as a Civilizational Revolution. A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Challenges of the 21st Century" (CRC Press, 2011). Artur is member of the European Academy of Science and Arts, Salzburg, Austria, The Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, the International Academy of Ecological Safety and Nature Management, Moscow, Russia and the International Association for Environmental Philosophy, Philadelphia, United States. He is editor-in-chief of the scientific journal "Problemy Ekorozwoju/ Problems of Sustainable Development" and member of the editorial board of the Committee of Environmental Engineering monographs.

Tomasz Pokój, Ph.D. received his Master’s degree in environmental protection in 2001 at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland, and defended his Ph.D. thesis "Accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates with mixed microbial cultures under oxygen and nitrogen limited conditions" at the same university in 2006. Since then, he has been working in the Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. His research and scientific interests focus on the synthesis of microbial biopolymers, the production of biogas, the modeling of anaerobic digestion in agricultural biogas plants, and technologies for biofuels. He is the author or co-author of 28 articles, 13 chapters in monographs and 1 book.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General