Biomass is a widely available resource, that can be characterized by its high production potential. Enabling the production of different types of biofuels, biomass can be used in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. There is extensive knowledge of the biofuel production process, and technologies enabling the production of biofuels with high caloric value and better physicochemical properties are developed. The biggest barrier in the development of a biofuels market is not the lack of know-how, but economic and political aspects.

    Biomass for Biofuels presents technological aspects of biomass conversion into advanced biofuels. Also discussed are the influence of growing biofuels markets on the natural environment and social relations as well as economic aspects of acquisition of biomass and its processing into biofuels. In addition biomass characteristics are presented. A definition is provided, and its chemical composition and properties detailed. The focus is on lignocellulosic biomass, whose complex structure is a limiting factor for biofuels production via biological processes. For that reason, echanical, chemical and physicochemical methods that enable an increased availability for the microorganisms used for biomass conversion to biofuels are discussed.


    1 Biofuels and sustainable development
    Ewa Klimiuk &Artur Pawłowski

    1 Introduction
    1.1 Sustainable development
    1.2 Strategies for sustainable development
    2 Environmental aspects of biofuels production
    2.1 Depletion of fossil fuel resources
    2.2 Environment pollution
    2.3 Changing the use of natural space and reducing biodiversity
    3 Economic aspects of biofuels production
    3.1 Cost effectiveness of biofuels production and energy balance
    3.2 Energy security
    3.3 Loss of government revenue
    4 Social aspects of biofuels production
    4.1 Rural development
    4.2 Diversification of production
    4.3 Risks associated with the production of biofuels
    5 Prospects for the development of the biofuels market

    2 Biomass for fuels – classification and composition
    Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin &Artur Pawłowski

    1 Definition and classification of biomass
    1.1 Definition of biomass
    1.2 Categories and types of biomass
    2 Biomass characteristics
    2.1 Criterion of expressing biomass composition
    2.2 Biomass composition – proximate analysis
    2.3 Biomass composition – ultimate analysis
    2.4 Biochemical biomass composition
    2.4.1 Characteristic of structural components in biomass
    2.4.2 Lignin isolation from biomass and its characterization

    3 Biomass feedstock for biofuels production
    Katarzyna Bułkowska &Artur Pawłowski

    1 Introduction
    2 Biomass feedstock for the first and next generation biofuels production
    3 Biomass feedstock for the second and third generation bioethanol production
    3.1 Lignocellulosic biomass
    3.1.1 Biomass from short-rotation forestry
    3.1.2 Perennial herbaceous energy crops
    3.1.3 Residues and waste
    3.2 Algae biomass
    4 Biomass feedstock for the second and third generation biodiesel production
    4.1 Non-edible oil seed
    4.2 Spent oil and animal fats
    4.3 Algae biomass

    4 Outlook for advanced biofuels
    Katarzyna Bułkowska, Ewa Klimiuk &Artur Pawłowski

    1 Introduction
    2 Thermal processes
    2.1 Biofuels from syngas
    2.2 Pyrolysis
    3 Microbial biofuels production
    3.1 Metabolic pathways as criterion classification of advanced biofuels
    3.2 Production of alcohols via fermentative pathways
    3.3 Production of alcohols via non-fermentative pathways
    3.4 Fatty acid-based biofuels
    3.5 Isoprenoid-based biofuels
    4 Olechemical processes
    5 Hybrid processes
    6 Properties and usage of advanced biofuels
    6.1 Gasoline and alternative biofuels
    6.2 Diesel and alternative biofuels
    6.3 Jet fuel and alternative biofuels

    5 Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into sugars: the effect of the structure of lignocellulose
    Katarzyna Bułkowska, Ewa Klimiuk, Tomasz Pokój &Artur Pawłowski

    1 Introduction
    2 Recalcitrance nature of plant cell walls
    3 Resistance of main components of lignocellulose
    3.1 Cellulose
    3.1.1 Structure of cellulose
    3.1.2 Effect of crystallinity
    3.1.3 Degree of cellulose polymerization
    3.1.4 Accessible surface area
    3.2 Hemicelluloses
    3.2.1 Hemicelluloses as a barrier for accessibility of cellulose
    3.2.2 Effect of acetyl groups
    3.2.3 Stability of lignin-carbohydrate bonds
    3.2.4 Stability of lignin-carbohydrate complexes
    3.3 Lignin
    3.3.1 Resistance of lignin to biodegradation
    3.3.2 Lignin as a barrier for accessibility of cellulose

    6 Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
    Katarzyna Bułkowska & Ewa Klimiuk

    1 Introduction
    2 Mechanical method: milling
    3 Chemical methods
    3.1 Pretreatment with dilute acids
    3.1.1 Operational condition of acid hydrolysis
    3.1.2 Reactors
    3.2 Pretreatment with alkaline
    3.3 Organosolv fractination
    3.4 Oxidative delignification
    3.5 Ionic liquids
    3.5.1 Pretreatment of biomass – dissolution of cellulose
    3.5.2 Pretreatment of biomass – dissolution of lignin
    3.5.3 Dissolution of biomass in ionic liquid
    4 Physico-chemical methods

    7 Fermentative and non-fermentative pathways of butanol and its analogues
    Tomasz Pokój & Ewa Klimiuk

    1 Introduction
    2 Butanol production via fermentative pathway
    2.1 Sugars and starch as substrates
    2.2 Butanol production from lignocellulosic materials
    2.2.1 Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP)
    2.2.2 Inhibitory effect of hydrolysis by-products on clostridia
    2.3 Engineering pathways to improve butanol production in solventogenic clostridia
    2.4 Escherichia coli as host for butanol/isopropanol production
    2.4.1 Butanol
    2.4.2 Isopropanol
    3 Non-fermentative alcohol fuels
    3.1 Production of higher-chain alcohols using the keto acid pathways
    3.1.1 Propanol and butanol
    3.1.2 Isobutanol
    3.1.3 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    About the Authors


    Katarzyna Bulkowska, Artur Pawlowski