Biomaterials: A Basic Introduction, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Biomaterials

A Basic Introduction, 1st Edition

By Qizhi Chen, George Thouas

CRC Press

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Description

Explores Biomedical Science from a Unique Perspective

Biomaterials: A Basic Introduction is a definitive resource for students entering biomedical or bioengineering disciplines. This text offers a detailed exploration of engineering and materials science, and examines the boundary and relationship between the two. Based on the author’s course lecture notes and many years of research, it presents students with the knowledge needed to select and design biomaterials used in medical devices. Placing special emphasis on metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and composite biomaterials, it explains the difference between materials science and materials engineering, introduces basic concepts and principles, and analyzes the critically important properties of biomaterials.

Explains Complex Theories Using Aspects of Daily Life

This text provides an appropriate balance between depth and broadness of coverage, and offers an understanding of the most important concepts and principles to students from a wide academic spectrum. It delivers the science of biomaterials in laymen terms, from a material standpoint, as well as a clinical applications point of view. It equips students majoring in materials science/engineering with knowledge on the fundamentals of how biomaterials behave at a biological level, and provides students majoring in medicine with information that is generally unavailable in traditional medical courses. The authors incorporate learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter, as well as chapter highlights, problems, and exercises at the end of each chapter. In addition, they present objectives, suggested activities, and reference material for further reading.

  • Contains an overview of medical science vis-à-vis materials science, describes anatomy, histology, and cell biology
  • Highlights health issues and diseases where biomaterials can easily find medical applications
  • Presents knowledge of the relationship between the biomaterials and the living body
  • Evaluates medical devices and looks into their respective regulations

Biomaterials: A Basic Introduction contains an overview of basic biomaterials and concepts, and is written for upper-division students in the US/Canada, and second-level students in universities worldwide.

Reviews

"Very comprehensive… The text is easy to read and ideal as an introductory text."

—Anthony McGoron, Florida International University, Miami, USA

"This textbook provides a logically structured approach to understanding biomaterial applications. The diagrams, pictures, and examples allow the reader to easily understand this complex topic."

—Peter Wawrow, St. Clair College, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

"This book is the most complete and thorough textbook on biomaterials I have had the chance to evaluate/read. It covers the basics of materials science and provide important insights on all the aspects relevant to the biomaterials field. Topics are presented and described in an accessible fashion, making this piece of work a valuable textbook for undergraduate (but also graduate) courses."

—Fabio Variola, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Table of Contents

Part I

Biomaterials Science

Biomaterials Science and Engineering

Learning Objectives

Materials Science and Engineering

Multilevels of Structure and Categorization of Materials

Four Categories of Materials

Definitions of Biomaterials, Biomedical Materials, and Biological Materials

Biocompatibility

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Toxicity and Corrosion

Learning Objectives

Elements in the Body

Biological Roles and Toxicities of Trace Elements

Selection of Metallic Elements in Medical-Grade Alloys

Corrosion of Metals

Environment inside the Body

Minimization of Toxicity of Metal Implants

Chapter Highlights

Laboratory Practice 1

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Advanced Topic: Biological Roles of Alloying Elements

Bibliography

Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials

Learning Objectives

Role of Implant Biomaterials

Mechanical Properties of General Importance

Hardness

Elasticity: Resilience and Strechability

Mechanical Properties Terms Used in the Medical Community

Failure

Essential Mechanical Properties of Orthopedic Implant Biomaterials

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Metallic Biomaterials in Orthopedic Implants

Learning Objectives

Development of Metallic Biomaterials

Stainless Steels

Cobalt-Based Alloys

Titanium Alloys

Comparison of Stainless Steels, Cobalt, and Titanium Alloys

Summary and Remarks

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Metallic Biomaterials: Miscellaneous Others

Learning Objectives

Dental Materials

NiTi Shape-Memory Alloys

Other Clinically Applied Metallic Materials

New Metallic Materials: Magnesium Alloys

Chapter Highlights

Laboratory Practice 2

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Bioinert Ceramics

Learning Objectives

Overview of Bioceramics

Inert Bioceramics: Al2O3

Inert Bioceramics: ZrO2

Two Types of Joints

Summary and Remarks on Al2O3 and ZrO2

Dental Ceramics

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Advanced Topic: Total Joint Replacement

Bibliography

Bioactive and Bioresorbable Ceramics

Learning Objectives

Overview of Surface Bioactive and Bulk Degradable Ceramics

Calcium Phosphates and Hydroxyapatite

Bioactive Glasses

Bioactive Glass-Ceramics

Bone-Bonding Mechanisms

Biodegradable Ceramics

Chapter Highlights

Laboratory Practice 3

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Advanced Topic: Bioceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Bibliography

Polymeric Biomaterials: Fundamentals

Learning Objectives

Basic Concepts on Polymers

Overview of Polymeric Biomaterials

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Advanced Topic: Polymers and Polymer Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Engineering

Bibliography

Bioinert Polymers

Learning Objectives

Polyolefin

Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)

Acrylate Polymer

Fluorocarbon Polymers

Silicone

Polyurethane

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Advanced Topic: Properties and Applications of Polyurethane as Biomaterials

Bibliography

Bioresorbable Polymers

Learning Objectives

Biodegradation of Polymers

Polyesters: PGA, PLA, and PCL

Polyesters: PHA

Elastomeric Polyester: Poly(Polyol Sebacate)

Polyether: Poly(Ethylene Glycol)

Polyamide

Surface-Erodible Polymers

Biological Polymers

Chapter Highlights

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Laboratory Practice 4

Advanced Topic: Natural Polymers: Resilin, Silk, and Gluten

Bibliography

Composite Biomaterials

Learning Objectives

Overview of Composites

Natural Composites: Bone

Dental Composites

Artificial Bone

Chapter Highlights

Laboratory Practice 5

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Advanced Topic: Development of Artificial Bone: Composites and Scaffolds

Bibliography

Part II

Medical Science

Medicine and Medical Science

Learning Objectives

Medicine and Medical Science

Medical Science versus Materials Science

Learning Goals of Part II

Chapter Highlights

Activity

Bibliography

Image Links

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Human Anatomy And Diseases I: Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, and Endocrine Systems

Learning Objectives

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Nervous System

Endocrine System

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Advanced Topic: Biomaterial Challenges in Bone Tissue Engineering

Bibliography

Human Anatomy And Diseases II: Cardiovascular System

Learning Objectives

Anatomy and Functions of the Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiac Performance: P–V Loop

Current Therapies for Heart Disease

Alternative Treatments and Application of Biomaterials

Artificial Blood Vessels

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Human Anatomy And Diseases III: Respiratory, Lymphatic, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive Systems

Learning Objectives

Respiratory System

Lymphatic System

Digestive System

Urinary System

Reproductive System

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Cells and Biomolecules

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Cell Biochemistry and Biosynthesis

Cell Structure

Transport across Plasma Membranes

Cell Proliferation

Cell Differentiation and Stem Cells

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Advanced Topic: Cell Therapy to Treat Cardiac Disease

Strategies to Address Immune Rejection in Cells

Summary of Cell-Based Therapies and Their Limitations

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Histology and Tissue Properties I: Epithelial, Neuronal, and Muscle Tissue

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Epithelium

Muscular Tissue

Nervous Tissue

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Advanced Topic: Properties of Proteins in Mammalian Tissues

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Histology and Tissue Properties II: Connective Tissues

Learning Objectives

Overview of Connective Tissues

Types of Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue Proper (Skin, Tendon, Ligament)

Mechanical Properties of Structural Proteins

Cartilage

Bone

Chapter Highlights

Laboratory Practice 6

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Immune System and Body Responses to Biomaterials

Learning Objectives

Immune System

Tissue Response to Injuries

Body Response to Implants

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Evaluation of Biomaterials

Learning Objectives

Overview of Biomaterials Evaluation

Standards

Toxicological Evaluation

Cytotoxicity Testing

Evaluation in Animals

Chapter Highlights

Laboratory Practice 7

Case Study: Evaluation of Heart Patch in Rats

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Regulation of Medical Devices

Learning Objectives

Regulations versus Standards

Medical Devices

Preclinical Testing

Clinical Trials

Development of Medical Devices and Possible Career Opportunities

Chapter Highlights

Activities

Simple Questions in Class

Problems and Exercises

Bibliography

Index

About the Authors

Qi-Zhi Chen earned her PhD in biomaterials from Imperial College London in 2007. She was previously an academic at Monash University. She was also formerly with the National Heart and Lung Institute London and the University of Cambridge. She has produced more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. Dr. Chen’s research interests broadly cover polymeric, ceramic, metallic, and composite biomaterials for application in biomedical engineering. Her teaching interests include physics and various topics of materials science and engineering, in addition to biomaterials.

George Thouas graduated with a master’s degree in biomedical sciences at Monash University, Melbourne, where he also earned his PhD in the same area in 2006. As an academic researcher, he specialized in developmental biology and reproductivemedicine, with a focus on cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function. He has also spent a major part of his career working in bioengineering research, enabling interdisciplinary projects in bioreactor design, medical devices, and novel biomaterials, with applications in tissue engineering and regeneration. Dr. Thouas has produced more than 50 publications, including peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, patents, and conference proceedings.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science