Biomedical Image Analysis  book cover
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1st Edition

Biomedical Image Analysis




ISBN 9780849396953
Published December 30, 2004 by CRC Press
1312 Pages 550 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Computers have become an integral part of medical imaging systems and are used for everything from data acquisition and image generation to image display and analysis. As the scope and complexity of imaging technology steadily increase, more advanced techniques are required to solve the emerging challenges.

Biomedical Image Analysis demonstrates the benefits reaped from the application of digital image processing, computer vision, and pattern analysis techniques to biomedical images, such as adding objective strength and improving diagnostic confidence through quantitative analysis. The book focuses on post-acquisition challenges such as image enhancement, detection of edges and objects, analysis of shape, quantification of texture and sharpness, and pattern analysis, rather than on the imaging equipment and imaging techniques. Each chapter addresses several problems associated with imaging or image analysis, outlining the typical processes, then detailing more sophisticated methods directed to the specific problems of interest.

Biomedical Image Analysis is useful for senior undergraduate and graduate biomedical engineering students, practicing engineers, and computer scientists working in diverse areas such as telecommunications, biomedical applications, and hospital information systems.

Table of Contents

PREFACE
THE NATURE OF BIOMEDICAL IMAGES
Body Temperature as an Image
Transillumination
Light Microscopy
Electron Microscopy
X-ray Imaging
Tomography
Nuclear Medicine Imaging
Ultrasonography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives of Biomedical Image Analysis
Computer-aided Diagnosis
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE QUALITY AND INFORMATION CONTENT
Difficulties in Image Acquisition and Analysis
Characterization of Image Quality
Digitization of Images
Optical Density
Dynamic Range
Contrast
Histogram
Entropy
Blur and Spread Functions
Resolution
The Fourier Transform and Spectral Content
Modulation Transfer Function
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Error-based Measures
Application: Image Sharpness and Acutance
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

REMOVAL OF ARTIFACTS
Characterization of Artifacts
Synchronized or Multiframe Averaging
Space-domain Local-statistics-based Filters
Frequency-domain Filters
Matrix Representation of Image Processing
Optimal Filtering
Adaptive Filters
Comparative Analysis of Filters for Noise Removal
Application: Multiframe Averaging in Confocal Microscopy
Application: Noise Reduction in Nuclear Medicine Imaging
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT
Digital Subtraction Angiography
Dual-energy and Energy-subtraction X-ray Imaging
Temporal Subtraction
Gray-scale Transforms
Histogram Transformation
Convolution Mask Operators
High-frequency Emphasis
Homomorphic Filtering for Enhancement
Adaptive Contrast Enhancement
Objective Assessment of Contrast Enhancement
Application: Contrast Enhancement of Mammograms
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

DETECTION OF REGIONS OF INTEREST
Thresholding and Binarization
Detection of Isolated Points and Lines
Edge Detection
Segmentation and Region Growing
Fuzzy-set-based Region Growing to Detect Breast Tumors
Detection of Objects of Known Geometry
Methods for the Improvement of Contour or Region Estimates
Application: Detection of the Spinal Canal
Application: Detection of the Breast Boundary in Mammograms
Application: Detection of the Pectoral Muscle in Mammograms
Application: Improved Segmentation of Breast Masses by Fuzzy-set-based Fusion of Contours and Regions
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

ANALYSIS OF SHAPE
Representation of Shapes and Contours
Shape Factors
Fourier Descriptors
Fractional Concavity
Analysis of Spicularity
Application: Shape Analysis of Calcifications
Application: Shape Analysis of Breast Masses and Tumors
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

ANALYSIS OF TEXTURE
Texture in Biomedical Images
Models for the Generation of Texture
Statistical Analysis of Texture
Laws' Measures of Texture Energy
Fractal Analysis
Fourier-domain Analysis of Texture
Segmentation and Structural Analysis of Texture
Audification and Sonification of Texture in Images
Application: Analysis of Breast Masses Using Texture and Gradient Measures {627}
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

ANALYSIS OF ORIENTED PATTERNS
Oriented Patterns in Images
Measures of Directional Distribution
Directional Filtering
Gabor Filters
Directional Analysis via Multiscale Edge Detection
Hough-Radon Transform Analysis
Application: Analysis of Ligament Healing
Application: Detection of Breast Tumors
Application: Bilateral Asymmetry in Mammograms
Application: Architectural Distortion in Mammograms
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FROM PROJECTIONS
Projection Geometry
The Fourier Slice Theorem
Backprojection
Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques
Imaging with Diffracting Sources
Display of CT Images
Agricultural and Forestry Applications
Microtomography
Application: Analysis of the Tumor in Neuroblastoma
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

DECONVOLUTION, DEBLURRING, AND RESTORATION
Linear Space-invariant Restoration Filters
Blind Deblurring
Homomorphic Deconvolution
Space-variant Restoration
Application: Restoration of Nuclear Medicine Images
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE CODING AND DATA COMPRESSION
Considerations Based on Information Theory
Fundamental Concepts of Coding
Direct Source Coding
Application: Source Coding of Digitized Mammograms
The Need for Decorrelation
Transform Coding
Interpolative Coding
Predictive Coding
Image Scanning Using the Peano-Hilbert Curve
Image Coding and Compression Standards
Segmentation-based Adaptive Scanning
Enhanced JBIG Coding
Lower-limit Analysis of Lossless Data Compression
Application: Teleradiology
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

PATTERN CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTIC DECISION
Pattern Classification
Supervised Pattern Classification
Unsupervised Pattern Classification
Probabilistic Models and Statistical Decision
Logistic Regression
The Training and Test Steps
Neural Networks
Measures of Diagnostic Accuracy
Reliability of Features, Classifiers, and Decisions
Application: Image Enhancement for Breast Cancer Screening
Application: Classification of Breast Masses and Tumors via Shape Analysis
Application: Content-based Retrieval and Analysis of Breast Masses
Remarks
Study Questions and Problems
Laboratory Exercises and Projects

REFERENCES
INDEX

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