Biomedical Image Analysis: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Biomedical Image Analysis

1st Edition

By Rangaraj M. Rangayyan

CRC Press

1,312 pages | 550 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2004-12-30
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Description

Computers have become an integral part of medical imaging systems and are used for everything from data acquisition and image generation to image display and analysis. As the scope and complexity of imaging technology steadily increase, more advanced techniques are required to solve the emerging challenges.

Biomedical Image Analysis demonstrates the benefits reaped from the application of digital image processing, computer vision, and pattern analysis techniques to biomedical images, such as adding objective strength and improving diagnostic confidence through quantitative analysis. The book focuses on post-acquisition challenges such as image enhancement, detection of edges and objects, analysis of shape, quantification of texture and sharpness, and pattern analysis, rather than on the imaging equipment and imaging techniques. Each chapter addresses several problems associated with imaging or image analysis, outlining the typical processes, then detailing more sophisticated methods directed to the specific problems of interest.

Biomedical Image Analysis is useful for senior undergraduate and graduate biomedical engineering students, practicing engineers, and computer scientists working in diverse areas such as telecommunications, biomedical applications, and hospital information systems.

Table of Contents

PREFACE

THE NATURE OF BIOMEDICAL IMAGES

Body Temperature as an Image

Transillumination

Light Microscopy

Electron Microscopy

X-ray Imaging

Tomography

Nuclear Medicine Imaging

Ultrasonography

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Objectives of Biomedical Image Analysis

Computer-aided Diagnosis

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE QUALITY AND INFORMATION CONTENT

Difficulties in Image Acquisition and Analysis

Characterization of Image Quality

Digitization of Images

Optical Density

Dynamic Range

Contrast

Histogram

Entropy

Blur and Spread Functions

Resolution

The Fourier Transform and Spectral Content

Modulation Transfer Function

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Error-based Measures

Application: Image Sharpness and Acutance

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

REMOVAL OF ARTIFACTS

Characterization of Artifacts

Synchronized or Multiframe Averaging

Space-domain Local-statistics-based Filters

Frequency-domain Filters

Matrix Representation of Image Processing

Optimal Filtering

Adaptive Filters

Comparative Analysis of Filters for Noise Removal

Application: Multiframe Averaging in Confocal Microscopy

Application: Noise Reduction in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

Digital Subtraction Angiography

Dual-energy and Energy-subtraction X-ray Imaging

Temporal Subtraction

Gray-scale Transforms

Histogram Transformation

Convolution Mask Operators

High-frequency Emphasis

Homomorphic Filtering for Enhancement

Adaptive Contrast Enhancement

Objective Assessment of Contrast Enhancement

Application: Contrast Enhancement of Mammograms

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

DETECTION OF REGIONS OF INTEREST

Thresholding and Binarization

Detection of Isolated Points and Lines

Edge Detection

Segmentation and Region Growing

Fuzzy-set-based Region Growing to Detect Breast Tumors

Detection of Objects of Known Geometry

Methods for the Improvement of Contour or Region Estimates

Application: Detection of the Spinal Canal

Application: Detection of the Breast Boundary in Mammograms

Application: Detection of the Pectoral Muscle in Mammograms

Application: Improved Segmentation of Breast Masses by Fuzzy-set-based Fusion of Contours and Regions

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

ANALYSIS OF SHAPE

Representation of Shapes and Contours

Shape Factors

Fourier Descriptors

Fractional Concavity

Analysis of Spicularity

Application: Shape Analysis of Calcifications

Application: Shape Analysis of Breast Masses and Tumors

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

ANALYSIS OF TEXTURE

Texture in Biomedical Images

Models for the Generation of Texture

Statistical Analysis of Texture

Laws' Measures of Texture Energy

Fractal Analysis

Fourier-domain Analysis of Texture

Segmentation and Structural Analysis of Texture

Audification and Sonification of Texture in Images

Application: Analysis of Breast Masses Using Texture and Gradient Measures {627}

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

ANALYSIS OF ORIENTED PATTERNS

Oriented Patterns in Images

Measures of Directional Distribution

Directional Filtering

Gabor Filters

Directional Analysis via Multiscale Edge Detection

Hough-Radon Transform Analysis

Application: Analysis of Ligament Healing

Application: Detection of Breast Tumors

Application: Bilateral Asymmetry in Mammograms

Application: Architectural Distortion in Mammograms

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FROM PROJECTIONS

Projection Geometry

The Fourier Slice Theorem

Backprojection

Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques

Imaging with Diffracting Sources

Display of CT Images

Agricultural and Forestry Applications

Microtomography

Application: Analysis of the Tumor in Neuroblastoma

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

DECONVOLUTION, DEBLURRING, AND RESTORATION

Linear Space-invariant Restoration Filters

Blind Deblurring

Homomorphic Deconvolution

Space-variant Restoration

Application: Restoration of Nuclear Medicine Images

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

IMAGE CODING AND DATA COMPRESSION

Considerations Based on Information Theory

Fundamental Concepts of Coding

Direct Source Coding

Application: Source Coding of Digitized Mammograms

The Need for Decorrelation

Transform Coding

Interpolative Coding

Predictive Coding

Image Scanning Using the Peano-Hilbert Curve

Image Coding and Compression Standards

Segmentation-based Adaptive Scanning

Enhanced JBIG Coding

Lower-limit Analysis of Lossless Data Compression

Application: Teleradiology

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

PATTERN CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTIC DECISION

Pattern Classification

Supervised Pattern Classification

Unsupervised Pattern Classification

Probabilistic Models and Statistical Decision

Logistic Regression

The Training and Test Steps

Neural Networks

Measures of Diagnostic Accuracy

Reliability of Features, Classifiers, and Decisions

Application: Image Enhancement for Breast Cancer Screening

Application: Classification of Breast Masses and Tumors via Shape Analysis

Application: Content-based Retrieval and Analysis of Breast Masses

Remarks

Study Questions and Problems

Laboratory Exercises and Projects

REFERENCES

INDEX

About the Series

Biomedical Engineering

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
TEC015000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Imaging Systems
TEC059000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Biomedical