In her quest for global leadership in science and technology, the People’s Republic of China has attained top ranks in the number of scientific publications, "hot papers," or national and international patent applications. However, analysis of the underlying structures and mechanisms is hindered by the sheer flood of data, stringent government control of all media, and ambiguities inherent in translation from Chinese. This book overcomes these difficulties and provides a concise picture of biotechnology-related research and development in China. It begins with brief accounts of China’s geography, people, political and administrational structure, economy, finance, infrastructure related to science and technology, and educational system. It presents succinct accounts on structures and developments in biomedicine, diagnostics, agriculture, fermented food, bioindustry, and environmental biotechnology, with reference to government, industry, and academia. Finally, it predicts the next steps in Chinese biotechnology for the national agenda and, in view of China’s ambitious global development strategy, the Belt and Road Initiative.