First published in 1999, this volume examines new forms of cultural diversity which result from migration and globalization. Historically, most liberal democracies have developed on the basis of national cultures – either a single one, or a dominant one, or a federation of several ones. However, political and economic developments have upset traditional patterns and have blurred established boundaries. Ongoing immigration from diverse origins has inserted new ethnic minorities into formerly homogenous populations. Democratic liberties and rights provided opportunities for old and new marginalized minorities to resist assimilation and to assert identities. The resulting pattern of multiculturalism is different from earlier ones. Often cultural boundaries are neither clearly defined nor do they simply dissolve by assimilation into a dominant group – they have become fuzzy and a constant source of real or imagined hostility and anxiety. A proliferation of mixed identities goes together with stronger claims for cultural rights and escalating hostilities between ethnic minorities and national majorities. In many countries multiculturalism is today perceived as a challenge rather than as an enrichment. The book focuses on the question how institution and policies of liberal democracies can cope with these trends.
The book addresses two tasks:
1) To compare different national contexts and types of ethnic groups (immigrant and indigenous, linguistic and religious minorities) and to discuss how policies of multicultural integration have to be adapted in order to cope with such differences.
2) To evaluate the impact of common rends of globalization which link societies and encourage convergence between national models of multicultural integration.
Table of Contents
Part 1. Migration and Minorities: The Diversity of Experiences with Diversity. 1. The Crossing and Blurring of Boundaries in International Migration: Challenges for Social and Political Theory. Rainer Bauböck. 2. Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Multiculturality: Reflections on the Meaning of Time and Space in Relation to the Blurred Boundaries of Multicultural Societies. Charles Westin. 3. Changing Representations of the Other in France: The Mirror of Migration. Catherine de Wenden. 4. Multiculturalism à la Canadian and Intégration à la Québécoise: Transcending their Limits. Danielle Juteau, Marie McAndrew and Linda Pietrantonio. 5. The Israeli Experience in Multiculturalism. Eliezer Ben-Rafael. 6. Multiculturalism from Above: Italian Variations on a European Theme. Giovanna Zincone. 7. Egalitarian Multiculturalism: Institutional Separation and Cultural Pluralism. Veit Bader. Part 2. Groups, Rights and Citizenship in Multicultural Contexts. 8. Globalization and the Ambiguities of National Citizenship. Stephen Castles. 9. Cultural Pluralism and the Subversion of the ‘Taken-for-Granted’ World. Maria Markus. 10. Toleration as the Public Acceptance of Difference. Anna Elizabetta Galeotti. 11. How Can Collective Rights and Liberation Be Reconciled? Daniel M. Weinstock. 12. Bridging the Gap: Citizenship in Europe and Asia. Alastair Davidson. 13. Tensions of Citizenship in an Age of Diversity: Reflections on Territoriality, Cosmopolitanism and Symmetrical Reciprocity. John Rundell. 14. Self-Representation and the Representation of the Other. Agnes Heller.
Rainer Baubock is senior researcher at the Institute for European Integration Research of Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna and is professor at the European University of Florence. Previous publications: Transnational Citizenship (1994), From Aliens to citizens (1994), The Challenge of Diversity (1996), Blurred Boundaries (1998), Migration and Citizenship (2006). John Rundell is Principal Honorary and Associate Professor and Reader in Social Theory at The University of Melbourne, Australia. He is the author of The Origins of Modern Social Theory from Kant to Hegel to Marx, the editor of Aesthetics and Modernity: Essays by Agnes Heller, and the co-editor of Between Totalitarianism and Postmodernity; Rethinking Imagination: Culture and Creativity; Culture and Civilization: Classical and Critical Readings; Blurred Boundaries: Migration, Ethnicity, Citizenship; Critical Theory After Habermas: Encounters and Departures; Contemporary Perspectives in Social and Critical Philosophy; and Recognition, Work, Politics: New Directions in French Critical Theory.