Boiler Plant and Distribution System Optimization Manual, Third Edition: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Boiler Plant and Distribution System Optimization Manual, Third Edition

3rd Edition

By Harry R. Taplin, Jr., P.E.

Fairmont Press

345 pages

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Hardback: 9781482260786
pub: 2014-07-15
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Description

The Third Edition of the Boiler Plant and Distribution System Optimization Manual has been upgraded with ten new checklists with over 100 ways to improve performance with 50 additional illustrations to communicate specific information about applying these technologies. The new checklists serve as a handy reference for designing an energy plan for your plants. Understanding that funds for energy come directly from your bottom line, this book has been designed for those tasked with increasing profits by reducing fuel costs while also reducing pollution and carbon footprints with attention to plant safety. The author presents many complex boiler-related topics in a simple and understandable way to simplify the decision-making process.

Table of Contents

Boiler Plant Orientation

Modern Boilers

Generating Steam

Types of Boilers

Firetube Boilers

Water Tube Boilers

Superheating of Steam

Superheater Temperature Control

Natural Circulation in Boiler Tubes

The Steam Drum

High Water Level Concerns

Carryover

Mist Carryover

Foaming Carryover

Priming Carryover

Start-Up

Warm-Up

Flame Safety Control

Boiler Safety Valves

Rating Boiler Capacity

Time-Temperature-Turbulence

Turndown Ratio

Boiler Casualties

High Efficiency Boiler Operations

Optimizing Boiler Plants Establishing the Ideal Scene

The First Step

Loss Prevention

Optimizing Boiler Management

Accountability

Measure to Manage

An Effective Energy Conservation Program

Energy Management Basics for Boilers and Systems

Energy Balance and Losses

The Higher Heating Value (HHV)

The Btu (British Thermal Unit)

Input-Output Efficiency

Why Steam is Used

Steam Properties

Accounting for Heat in Steam and Water

Energy Recovery in the Condensate System

Calculating Fuel Savings and Loss Based on Efficiency Change

Calculating Performance

Deficiency Costs

Carbon Dioxide Reduction

Improving Radiant Heat Transfer

Flame Temperature

Basic Boiler Plant Efficiency

Fuel Consumption

Fuel Cost

Annual Fuel Costs

Analyze Performance

Stack Losses

Blowdown Losses

Surface Losses

As-found Efficiency

Tune-Up

Reducing Stack Temperature

Blowdown Heat Recovery

Optimized Efficiency

Cost of Steam

Boiler Productivity

Dollar Savings

Additional Losses

Distribution System Efficiency

Steam System Losses

Flash Steam

High Temperature Hot Water Systems

Insulation Losses

Flash Steam Losses from Insulation Losses

Bare Piping Losses

Measuring Insulation Losses

Condensate System Losses

External Steam Leaks

Internal Steam Leaks

Steam Trap Malfunctions

Efficiency Calculation Methods

ASME Computational Procedures

Comparison of the Input·Output and Heat Loss Methods

The Input·Output Method

The Heat Loss Method

Combustion Heat Loss Tables

Heat Loss Due to Radiation

Comparing Methods for Measuring Boiler Efficiency

Combustion Analysis

Combustion Analysis

Caution

Stack Fires

Sources of Problems

The Smoke Spot Test

Possible Causes of Smoke Conditions

Low Stack Temperature

The Dangers of Carbon Monoxide

Chimney Effect

Condensing Flue Gases to Improve Efficiency

Sulfur In Fuel Forms Acid

Combustibles

Combustion Efficiency

Stoichiometric Combustion

Excess Air

How Do You Achieve Optimum Combustion Efficiency?

Flue Gas Heat Loss

Flue Gas Measurement

Orsat Testing

Finding Stack Losses

Paramagnetic

Wet Electrochemical Instruments

In situ vs. Close-coupled Extractive Analyzers

Net Oxygen vs. Gross Oxygen

Measurements

Relative Humidity

Oxygen Deficiency and Safety

Carbon Monoxide and Combustibles Measurement Methods

Catalytic Combustibles Sensor

Infrared CO Measurement

Off-stack CO Analyzers

Across-the-stack CO Analyzers

Opacity

Stack Temperature

Accuracy of Sampling Techniques

Using Carbon Monoxide to Measure Performance

The Control of Boilers

Steam Pressure Control

Safety Controls

Combustion Control

Feedwatcr Control

Blowdown Control

Furnace Pressure Control

Steam Temperature Control

Cold End Temperature Control

Soot Blower Control

Safety Valves

Flame Safety Controls

Safety Interlocks

Basic Firing Rate Control

Parallel Positioning Control

Jackshaft Control Systems

Series Positioning Control

Cross Limiting Control Features

Metering Control Systems

Feedwater Control

Blowdown Control

Furnace Pressure Control

Oxygen Trim

Carbon Monoxide Trim

Digital Control

Boiler Tune Up

A Tuneup Starts with an Inspection and Testing

Stack Temperature

Inspecting Your Boiler

Furnace

Fundamental Combustion Characteristics

Flame Appearance

The Ideal Flame

Problems that Can Occur in a Burner Flame of Ideal Geometry

Combustion of Oil [Figure 9.24]

The Basics of a Tuneup

Finding the Smoke and CO Threshold

Minimum Excess Oxygen

Control System Lineari ty

Step-By-Step Procedure for Adjusting Boiler Controls for Low-Excess Oxygen

Review of the Fine Tuning Process

Tuning Boiler Controls

High Efficiency Operations

Over 100 Ways to Improve Efficiency

High Efficiency Operations (Checklist 1)

Combustion Systems (Checklist 2)

Boiler Improvements (Checklist 3)

Metering and Monitoring (Checklist 4)

Boiler Water Management (Checklist 5)

Capital Investment Projects (Checklist 6)

Steam System Improvements (Checklist 7)

Heat Recovery Projects (Checklist 8)

Process Heating Systems (Checklist 9)

Building HVAC Projects (Checklist 10)

Standard Practices

Boiler Plant Calculations

Finding Excess Air Using Flue Gas Analysis of Carbon Dioxide (C02) and Oxygen (02)

Using Carbon Dioxide (C02) Measurements

Using Oxygen Measurements

Boiler Stack Gas Losses

Calculating Fuel Savings

Estimating Losses and Savings

Reducing Excess Air to Improve Efficiency

Air Infiltration

Reducing Stack Temperature to Improve Efficiency

Combustible Losses (Carbon Monoxide)

Analyzing Costs and Benefits of an Economizer and an Oxygen Trim System

Cost of Money

Programming Boiler Operations

Introduction to the Steam Tables for Accounting for Energy

Heat Losses in the Condensate Return System

Distribution System Losses

Boiler Blowdown Heat Recovery

Saving Energy by Improving Condensate Return

Reducing Blowdown Losses by Increasing Cycles of Concentration

Condensate Systern Water Leaks

Steam Leak Relief Valve

Distribution System Insulation Losses

Electrical Losses

Energy Savings with Adjustable Speed Drive [ASD]

Setting the Fuel Oil Heater for Proper Fuel Oil Viscosity at the Burner

Conversion Factors

Waste Heat Recovery

Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities

Where WasteHeat Can Be Used

Acid Formation A Limiting Factor in Waste Heat Recovery

What is Flue Gas?

Carbon as Fuel

Dry Gas and Moisture Losses

Sensible and Latent Heat

Fuel

Regenerators and Recouperators

Conventional Economizer

Cold-End Corrosion in Economizers

Controlling Acid Formation

Condensing the Moisture in Flue Gasses

Steam System Optimization

Steam System Optimization, a Huge Opportunity for Savings

Steam Distribution System Losses

Steam Traps

Steam Trap Types and Characteristics

Steam Trap Losses

Steam Trap Selection Sizing and Installation

Steam Trap Selection Guide

Steam Trap Operating Characteristics

Steam Trap Limitation Guide

Trouble Shooting Steam Traps

Steam Trap Inspection Checkoff List

Inspection Checklist for Steam Trap Misapplication

Boiler Water Treatment

Impurities in Boiler Feedwater Concentrate in the Boiler

Water Hardness

Condensate System Corrosion

The Priming Boiler

Water Carryover in Steam

Mist Carryover

Priming Carryover

Silica Carryover

Two Key Operating Controls for Deareators

Chemical Removal of Oxygen from Boiler Feedwater

Condensate Corrosion

External Water Treatment

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS093000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Facility Management
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical