Boilers: A Practical Reference, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Boilers

A Practical Reference, 1st Edition

By Kumar Rayaprolu

CRC Press

649 pages | 556 B/W Illus.

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Description

Following the publication of the author’s first book, Boilers for Power and Process by CRC Press in 2009, several requests were made for a reference with even quicker access to information. Boilers: A Practical Referenceis the result of those requests, providing a user-friendly encyclopedic format with more than 500 entries and nearly the same number of supporting illustrations.

Written for practicing engineers and dealing with practical issues rather than theory, this reference focuses exclusively on water tube boilers found in process industries and power plants. It provides broad explanations for the following topics:

  • A range of boilers and main auxiliaries, as well as steam and gas turbines
  • Traditional firing techniques—grates, oil/gas, and modern systems
  • Industrial, utility, waste heat, MSW and bio-fuel-fired boilers, including supercritical boilers
  • The scientific fundamentals of combustion, heat transfer, fluid flow, and more
  • The basics of fuels, water, ash, high-temperature steels, structurals, refractory, insulation, and more
  • Additional engineering topics like boiler instruments, controls, welding, corrosion, and wear
  • Air pollution, its abatement techniques and their effect on the design of boilers and auxiliaries
  • Emerging technologies such as carbon capture, oxy-fuel combustion, and PFBC

This reference covers almost every topic needed by boiler engineers in process and power plants. An encyclopedia by design and a professional reference book by focus and size, this volume is strong on fundamentals and design aspects as well as practical content. The scope and easy-to-navigate presentation of the material plus the numerous illustrations make this a unique reference for busy design, project, operation, and consulting engineers.

Table of Contents

A

Abrasion and Abrasion Index (see Wear)

Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity (μ) (see Viscosity in Fluid Characteristics)

Acid Cleaning (see Commissioning)

Acid Rain (also see Air Pollution Emissions and Controls and Gas Cleaning)

Acid Sludge (see Refuse Fuels from Refinery in Liquid Fuels)

Acid Smuts (see Oil Ash)

Acoustic Soot Blowers (see Sonic Horns)

Acoustic Enclosure (see Noise Control)

Acoustic Leak Detection System

Adiabatic Flame Temperature (see Combustion)

Aeroderivative (see Types of GTs in Turbines, Gas)

Ageing of Boiler Components

Agro-Fuels and Firing

Air Ducts (see Draught Plant)

Air Flow Measurement (see Instruments for Measurement)

Airheater (see also Backend Equipment in Heating Surfaces)

Air Infiltration or Air Ingress in Boiler Setting (see Combustion)

Air Nozzles (in FBC Boilers) (see Fluidised Bed Combustion)

Air Pollution (see also Acid Rain, Emissions and Controls Gas Cleaning and Green House Gases)

Air Registers (see Burners)

Alkali Boil Out (see Commissioning)

Allowable Stresses (see Pressure Part Design)

Alloy Steels (see Metals)

All Volatile Treatment (see Water)

Alternate Fuel (see Fuel Firing Modes in Fuels)

Altitude

Ambient Conditions

Angle of Repose (see Properties of Substances)

Amines (see Water)

Anthracite

Anti-Segregation Chute (see Grates)

API Gravity (see Liquid fuels)

Approach Temperature (see also (1) Steaming and Non-Steaming Economiser in conomiser Classification and (2) Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of HRSG)

Arch-Fired Boilers (see Downshot or Arch-Fired Boilers in Utility Boilers)

Arch Firing (see Arch Mounted/Downshot/Vertical Burners in Pulverised Fuel Burners)

Ash (see also Coal Ash and Oil Ash)

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see Boiler Codes)

Ash Recirculation or Recycling or Re-Injection

Asphalt (see Liquid Fuels)

Assisted Circulation or Full Load Recirculation (see Circulation)

Atmospheric Fluidised Bed Combustion

Atomisation

Atomiser

Atrita Mills (see Horizontal Mills under Pulverisers)

Attemperator and Desuperheater (see also Control Valves in Valves)

Austenitic Steels (see Stainless Steels in Metals)

Automatic Combustion Control (see Control Range and Boiler Control)

Auxiliaries

Auxiliary Fuel (see Fuel Firing Modes in Fuels)

Axial Fan (also see Fans)

B

Bag Filter/Cloth Filter/Fabric Filter (see Dust Collection Equipment)

Bagasse and Firing (see Agro-Fuels)

Bagasse-Fired Boilers (see also Bagasse in Agro-Fuels and Grates)

Ball and Racer Mill (see Pulverisers)

Ball and Tube Mill (see Pulverisers)

Ballast or Burden in Fuel (see Proximate Analysis in Coal)

Banking of Boiler (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Bark (see Agro-Fuels)

Basalt

Base–Acid Ratio in Coal Ash (see Ash)

Base Fuel (see Fuel Firing Modes)

Beater Wheel Mills (see Lignite)

Belt Feeders in Pulverised Firing (see Fuel Feeders)

Benson Boiler (see Once-Through Boiler)

Bernoulli’s Equation (see Fluid Flow)

Bi-Colour Gauges (see Direct Water Level Indicators)

Bi-Drum Boilers (see Industrial Boilers)

0-Fuels (see Agro-Fuels)

Biomass

Bi-Metal Tubes (see Boiler Tubes under Materials of Construction)

Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG) (see Wire Gauge)

Bitumen (see Liquid Fuels)

Bituminous Coal

Bituminous Sands (see Liquid Fuels)

Black Liquor (see Recovery Boiler and Kraft Process)

Black Liquor Recovery Boiler (see Recovery Boiler)

Black Body (see Heat Transfer)

Blast Furnace Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Blast Furnace Gas-Fired Boilers (see Waste Heat Boilers)

Blowdown (also see Boiler Blowdown in Water and Safety Valves under Valves)

Blowdown Tanks (also see Boiler Blowdown under the Topic of Water)

Blowdown Steam Recovery

Blowing, Steam Line (see Commissioning)

Blow Off (also see Blowdown Tanks and see Boiler Blowdown under the Topic of Water)

Boil Out (see Commissioning)

Boiler (or Steam Generator) (see also Boiler Classification)

Boiler Bank or Convection Bank or Evaporator Bank (see Heating Surfaces)

Boiler Bank Tubes (see Pressure Parts)

Boiler Blowdown, Continuous and Intermittent (see Water)

Boiler Classification

Boiler Codes

Boiler Control

Boiler Evaporation (see Boiler Steam Flow)

Boiler Heat Duty

Boiler Horsepower

Boiler Island

Boiler Layup (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Boiler Mountings and Fittings (see Auxiliaries)

Boiler Operating Modes

Boiler Preservation (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Boiler Pressures

Boiler Quality Plates (see Materials of Construction)

Boiler Rating (see also Boiler Steam Flow)

Boiler Scope

Boiler Specifications (see Boiler Steaming Conditions)

Boiler Start up (see Commissioning)

Boiler Steam Flow

Boiler Steaming Conditions/Parameters

Boiler Steam Temperatures

Boiler Storage (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Boiler Supporting (see Structure)

Boiler Tubes (see Materials of Construction)

Boiler Types (see Boiler Classification)

Boiling (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Bomb Calorimeter (see Measurement of Fuel cv by Bomb Calorimeter under Instruments and Measurements)

Bottom Ash (see Ash: Bottom and Fly)

Bottom-Supported Boiler (see Structure)

Bourdon Gauge (see Pressure Measurement under Instruments and Measurements)

Brayton Cycle or Joule Cycle (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Breechings (see Flues and Ducts in Draught Plant)

BRIL (see also Refractory, Insulation and Lagging)

Brinnel Hardness Test (see Testing of Materials [Metals])

Brittleness (see Metal Properties)

Brown Coal (see Lignite)

Bubble Flow (see Flow of Liquids)

Bubbling Fluidised-Bed Combustion (see also Fluidisation, Fluidised-Bed Combustion and Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion)

Bubbling Fluidised-Bed Combustion Boilers

Buckstays (see Furnace Pressure in Heating Surfaces)

Burden in Fuel (see Ballast in Proximate Analysis in Coal)

Burners (see 1. Oil and Gas Burners, 2. Pulverised Fuel Burners, 3. Lignite and Brown Coal Firing and 4. Low NOx Burners)

Burner Management System (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Bypass Stack (see Draught Plant)

C

Calcination Reaction (see Desulphurisation)

Calorific Value of Fuels (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Calorimeter (see Steam Quality Measurement under Instruments and Measurements)

Calorising

Capillarity or Capillary Action (see Fluid Properties under Fluid Characteristics)

Carbon Monoxide (see Air Pollution)

Carbon Monoxide Fuel Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Carbon Residue (see Fuel Properties under Liquid Fuels)

Carbon Steels (see Metals)

Carbon Sequestration and Storage

Carnot Cycle (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Carry over (see Steam Purity)

Cast Iron (see Metals)

Castings (see Metals)

Caustic Embrittlement or Caustic Stress Corrosion (see Water)

Cavitation (also see Control Valves under Valves)

Ceramic Fibre Lining (see Insulating Materials)

Chang Cycle or Steam Injected Gas Turbine Cycle (see GT Performance under Turbines, Gas)

Char or Fixed Carbon (see Coal Analyses under Coal)

Charpy Test (see Impact Testing of Metals [Charpy and Izod] under Testing of Materials)

Chemical Dosing of Boilers (see Water Treatment)

Chemical Cleaning of Boilers (see Commissioning)

Chimney (see Stack)

Chimney Effect (see Stack Effect)

Choked Flow Condition (see Flow Types in Vertical and Horizontal Tubes)

Chordal Thermocouple (see Temperature Measurement under Instruments for Measurements)

Chromising (see Boiler Tubes in Materials of Construction)

Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion (also see Fluidisation, Fluidised-Bed Combustion and Bubbling Fluidised-Bed Combustion)

Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion Boilers (also see Utility Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion Boilers)

Circofluid or Cold Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion System (also see Fluidised-Bed Combustion, Circulating)

Circulation

Clad Tubes (see Boiler Tubes under Materials of Construction)

Cladding (see Lagging)

Clean Coal Combustion

Clinker (see Ash)

Cloth Filter (see Dust Collection Equipment)

Coal

Coal Ash (see Ash, Oil Ash)

Coal Bed Methane Coal Bed Methane (see Gaseous Fuels)

Coal Pipes (see Pulverised Fuel Piping)

Coal Tar (see Liquid Fuels)

Co-Firing/Co-Combustion

Carbon Monoxide Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Carbon Monoxide Boilers (see Waste Heat Boilers)

Cogen Cycle (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Coke

Coke Breeze

Coke Oven Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Coke Oven Gas-Fired Boilers (see Waste Heat Recovery Boilers)

Coking Coal (see Coal)

Cold Drawn Seamless Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS) Tubes (see Materials of Construction)

Combination (Combo) Boilers (see Hybrid Boilers in Smoke Tube Boilers)

Combined Cycle (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Combined Cycle Power Plant or Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

Combined Heat Transfer (see Heat Transfer)

Combustion

Combustion Turbines (see Gas Turbines)

Combustor (in Fluidised-Bed Boilers) (see Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion)

Commissioning of Boilers

Compensators (see Expansion Joints under Draught Plant)

Composite Tubes (see Boiler Tubes under Materials of Construction)

Compressibility (see Fluid Properties under Fluid Characteristics)

Compressible Fluid (see Types of Fluid under Fluid Characteristics)

Condensate (see Water Types in Water)

Conduction (see Heat Transfer)

Conductivity (for Total Dissolved Solids in Measurement Steam and Water)

Contact Corrosion of Steel Materials (see Corrosion)

Continuous Blowdown (see Boiler Blowdown in Water)

Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (see Acid Rain)

Control Range (see also Boiler Control)

Convection (see Heat Transfer)

Convection Bank (see Heating Surfaces)

Convective Superheater (see Superheater Classification in Heating Surfaces)

Corner Firing (see Pulverised Fuel Burner Arrangement)

Corrosion (see also Ash Corrosion)

COR-TEN Steel

Counter Flow of Fluids (see Fluid Flow Patterns in Fluid Flow)

Cracking (of Petroleum) (also see Crude Oil or Petroleum in Major Liquid Fuels under Liquid Fuels)

Creep (see Metal Properties)

Crevice Corrosion (see in Corrosion)

Critical Flow and Pressure (for Nozzles)

Critical Pressure Point of Steam and Water (also see Properties of Steam and Water)

Critical Pressure (see Critical Pressure Point of Steam and Water)

Critical Temperature (see Critical Pressure Point of Steam and Water)

Critical Heat Flux (see Boiling under Properties of Steam and Water)

Cross Flow of Fluids (see Fluid Flow Patterns in Fluid Flow)

Crude Oil (see Liquid Fuels)

Cycle Efficiency (also see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Cycling Mode of Operation (see Boiler-Operating Modes)

Cyclone Furnace and Firing

Cyclones, Hot and Cold (also see Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion)

Cyclone Separators

Cyclone Steam Separators (see Drum Internals)

D

Dampers (see Draught Plant)

Darcy–Weisbach Formula (see Fluid Flow)

Deaeration/Deaerator (see Water)

Dealkalisation (see Water)

Deflection Baffles in Steam Drum (see Drum Internals)

Degrees Engler (see Liquid Fuels and Instruments for Measurement)

Deionisation (see Demineralisation of Water in Water)

Demineralisation (see Water)

Denitrification or DeNOx (see NOx Reduction)

Density of Air and Gas (see Properties of Air and Flue Gas)

Density of Solids (see Bulk and True Densities of Solids in Properties of Substances)

Density (ρ) of Steam and Water (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Deoxidation of Steels (see Metallurgy)

Departure from Nucleate of Boiling (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Design Pressure of Boiler (see Boiler Pressure)

Desulphurisation or DeSOx Reaction

Desuperheater (see Attemperator)

Deslaggers (see Wall Blowers in Sootblowers)

Dew Point Corrosion (see Ash Corrosion)

Dew Point or Dew Point Temperature (Tdp)

Diameter, Equivalent (de) and Hydraulic (dh)

Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer (see Heat Transfer)

Direct Water Level Indicators (see also Water Level Indicators and Remote Water Level Indicators)

Dissociation of Flue Gas (see Combustion)

Distillation (also see Major Liquid Fuels: Crude Oil or Petroleum)

Distributed Control Systems

Division Wall (in Furnace) (see Pressure Parts)

Dosing of Chemicals (see Water Treatment)

Downcomers or Supplies (see Pressure Parts)

Down Shot Burners (see PF Burners)

Down Shot-Fired Boilers (see Utility Boilers)

Drain Piping (see Integral Piping in Pressure Parts)

Draught (see also Furnace Draught under Fans)

Draught Plant

Drums (see Pressure Parts)

Drum Anchoring (see Drum Supporting)

Drum Internals (also see Steam Purification)

Drum Pressure (see Boiler Pressures)

Drum Slings

Drum Supporting Method

Drum Water Treatment (see Water)

Dry Air (see Combustion Calculations in Combustion)

Dry Bulb Temperature Tdb (see Psychrometric Chart)

Dry Wall Flow or Film Boiling (see Flow Types in Vertical and Horizontal Tubes)

D-type Boilers (see Package Boilers in Oil and Gas Fired Boilers)

Ductility (see Metal Properties)

Dulong Formula (see Coal Calorific Value under Coal)

Dust Collection Equipment

Dynamic Classifier (see Vertical Mills in Pulverisers)

E

Economiser (see also Backend Equipment in Heating Surfaces and Pressure Parts)

Effective Projected Radiant Surface (see Furnace in Heating Surfaces)

Efficiency (η) of Boiler

Efficiency, Ligament

Elasticity (of Fluids) (see Fluid Properties under Fluid Characteristics)

Electro-Filters (see Electrostatic Precipitators under Dust Collection Equipments)

Emissivity (see Radiation Heat in Heat Transfer)

Energy (E) (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Electromatic Safety Valve (see Safety Valves under Valves)

Electronic Water Level Indicators (see Remote Water Level Indicators)

Electrostatic Precipitators (see Dust Collection Equipment)

Emissions and Control (also see Acid Rain)

Endurance Limit or Fatigue Strength (see Metal Properties)

Energy (E) (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Engler, Degrees for Fuel Oils (see Fuel Properties in Liquid Fuels)

Enthalpy (H) (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Entropy (s or ϕ) (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Enthalpy–Entropy Diagram (H–s Diagram) (see Entropy in Thermodynamic Properties)

Equivalent Diameter (De) (see Diameter, Equivalent)

Erosion (see Wear)

Electrically Resistance Welded Tubes (see Boiler Tubes)

Evaporation of Boiler (see Boiler Rating and Boiler Steam Low)

Evaporation of Water (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Evaporator Bank (see Heating Surfaces)

Evaporator (Pulp) (see Kraft Pulping Process)

Excess Air (see Combustion)

Expanded Drums (see Steam Drum in Pressure Parts)

Expansion Joints (see Draught Plant)

Extended Surfaces

Explosion in Boiler (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

F

Fabric Filter (see Dust Collection Equipment)

Fanning’s Friction Factor (see Moody’s Factor)

Fans

Fatigue Strength or Endurance Limit (see Metal Properties)

Feeders (see Fuel Feeders)

Feed Water (see Water)

Feed Water Temperature (see Boiler Steam Temperatures)

Ferritic Steels (see Metals)

Ferritic Austenitic Steels (see Metals)

Fibre Glass (see Insulating Materials)

Field-Erected Boilers (see also Field-Erected Boilers in Oil- and Gas-Fired Boiler)

Filling of Boiler (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Film Boiling (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Fins (see Extended Surfaces)

Finned Tubes (for Hrsgs) (see Heat Recovery Steam Generators)

Fire Bricks (see Refractories)

Fire Clay Refractories (see Refractories)

Fire Tube Boiler (see Smoke Tube Boilers)

Fittings (for Boilers) (see Auxiliaries)

Fixed Carbon (see Coal)

Flame Monitors/Scanners

Flame Supervisor Safety System (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Flash Point (see Liquid Fuels)

Flow Measurement

Flow Types in Vertical and Horizontal Tubes

Flow Nozzle (see Steam Flow Measurement in Instruments)

Flue Tube Boilers (also Fire/Smoke Tube/Shell Type Boilers) (see Smoke Tube Boilers)

Flue Gas (see Properties of Air and Flue Gas)

Flues and Ducts (see Draught Plant)

Flue Tube Boilers (see Smoke Tube Boilers)

Flue Gas Desulphurisation (see Desulphurisation)

Flue Gas Recirculation or Recycling (see Gas Recirculation)

Fluid Characteristics

Fluid Flow

Fluid Velocities (also see Draught Plant)

Fluidisation

Fluidised Bed Combustion

Fluidised Bed Ash Coolers (see Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion)

Fluidised Bed Heat Exchanger (see Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion)

Fly Ash (see Ash: Bottom and Fly)

Foaming and Priming (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Forced Circulation (see Circulation)

Forgings (see Materials of Construction)

Fossil Fuels

Fouling (see Slagging and Fouling)

Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction (see Conduction Heat in Heat Transfer)

Frame Machines in Gas Turbines (see GT Types in Gas Turbines)

Freeboard (see Fluidised Bed Combustion, Bubbling and Circulating)

Free Burning Coals (see Caking Coals in Coal)

Free Convection (see Convection in Heat Transfer)

Fuels (also see Fossil Fuels and Coals of the World in Appendix 3)

Fuel Classification (also see Coals of the World in Appendix 3)

Fuel Distributors or Spreaders

Fuel Feeders

Fuel Firing Modes

Fuel Oils (see Liquid Fuels)

Fuel Ratio (see Coal Classification under Coal)

Furnace (see Pressure Parts and Heating Surfaces)

Furnace Air Staging (see Separated Overfire Air)

Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Furnace Draught (see Fans)

Fusibility of Fuel Ash (see Ash Fusibility)

G

Gas Bypassing

Gas Cleaning (also see 1. Dust Collection Equipment, 2. Desulphurisation, 3. Nitrogen Oxides in Flue Gas, 4. Reburning, 5. Selective Catalytic Reduction, 6. Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, 7. Separated Overfire Air)

Gas Electric Igniters (see Igniters)

Gaseous Fuels

Gas-Fired Boilers (see Oil- and Gas-Fired Boilers)

Gas Laning

Gas Recirculation or Recycling and Gas Tempering

Gas Side Corrosion (see Ash Corrosion)

Gas Turbines (see Turbines, Gas)

Gas Turbine Cycle (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Gas Velocities

Gauge Glasses (see Water Level Indicators)

Glass Wool (see Insulating Materials)

Grain Size of Steel (see Metallurgy)

Graphitisation in Steel Pipe

Grashof’s Number (see Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer)

Grates

Grate Types

Green Liquor (see Kraft Pulping Process and Recovery Boiler)

Green House Gases

Grindability Index (see Hardgrove Index)

Grinding (see Pulverising)

Gross Calorific Value (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Gross Steam Generation (see Steam Generation)

Gross Thermal η (see Definitions of η under Efficiency of Boiler)

Guillotine Dampers (see Dampers in Draught Plant)

H

Hardenability (of Steel) (see Metallurgy)

Hardness of Steel (see Metallurgy)

Hardness of Water (see Water)

Hardness Measurements of Metals (see Testing of Materials)

Hardgrove Index

Headers (see Pressure Parts)

Heat or Heat Energy (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Heat Balance (also see Definition of Efficiency in Efficiency of Boiler)

Heat Credits (see Heat Loss Calculation in Efficiency of Boiler)

Heat Distribution to HSs (at Various Pressure Levels) (see Industrial Boilers)

Heat Duty of Boiler (see Boiler Heat Duty)

Heat Exchangers in Boiler (also see Fluid Flow Patterns in HXs and Log Mean Temperature Difference [LMTD or Δtm])

Heat Flow Equation (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Heat Flux (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Heat Input into Boiler (Hin) (see also Heat Release Rate)

Heat Loss Account (see Break up of Losses in Efficiency of Boiler)

Heat of Combustion (see Combustion)

Heat of Evaporation (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Heat Output of Boiler (see Boiler Heat Duty)

Heat Pipe AH (see Airheater)

Heat Rate (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Heat Release Rate

Heat Released and Available (see Heat Input)

Heat Treatment of Steel (see Metallurgy)

Heat Loss Method in Boiler Testing (see Efficiency of Boiler)

Heat Resistant Castings (see Castings in Materials of Construction)

Heating Surfaces (also see Pressure Parts)

Heat Recovery Steam Generators

Heat Released and Available (see Heat Input into Boiler)

Heat Transfer

Heating/Calorific Value (hv/cv) of Fuels (see Thermodynamic Properties)

High Temperature Corrosion (see Ash Corrosion)

Hog Fuel (see Agro-Fuels)

Hooke’s Law (see Metal Properties)

Hoppers

Horizontal Mills (see Pulverisers and Beater Mills in Lignite and Firing)

Horse Shoe Furnace (see Pile Burning)

Hot Gas Generators

Humidity (see Psychrometric Chart)

Hybrid Boilers (see Smoke Tube Boilers)

Hydraulic Diameter (see Equivalent Diameter)

Hydraulic or Hydrostatic Testing

Hydrogen Embrittlement (see Water)

I

Ignifluid Boilers

Igniters

Ignition Temperature (see Combustion)

Implosion (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Incineration

Inconel

Indirect Firing (in Pulverised Fuel Boilers) (see Pulverised Fuel Firing)

Industrial Boilers (also see 1. Boiler, 2. Boiler Classification and 3. Utility Boilers)

Inertia in Boilers

Initial Ash Deformation Temperature (see Ash Fusibility)

Input–Output Method (in Boiler Testing) (see Efficiency Testing)

Instruments for Measurement

Insulating Materials

Insulating Castables (see Refractories)

Integral Piping (see Pressure Parts)

Intermittent Blowdown (see Blowdown in Water)

Iron–Carbon Diagram (see Metallurgy)

Internal Re-Circulation Circulating Fluidised-Bed System (see also Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion)

Iron Castings (see Castings in Materials of Construction)

J

Joule Cycle (see Brayton Cycle)

J-Valve (see Loop Seal in Fluidised-Bed Combustion, Circulating)

K

Killed Steel (see Deoxidation of Steels)

Kinematic Viscosity (υ) (see Fluid Characteristics)

Kirchoff’s Law of Thermal Radiation (see Radiation Heat under Heat Transfer)

Kraft Pulping Process (also see Recovery Boiler)

L

Lagging

Laminar Flow (see Fluid Flow Types)

La Mont Boiler (see Once-Through Boiler)

Lane Blowing (see Sootblowers)

Laws of Steam and Water (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Laws of Thermodynamics (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Latent Heat (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Life Extension

Ligament Efficiency (see Efficiency, Ligament)

Lignite and Firing

Limestone

Liquid Fuels

Liquid Penetrating Test (see Testing of Materials)

Liquefied Natural Gas (see Liquid Fuels)

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (see Liquid Fuels)

Log Mean Temperature Difference (also see Fluid Flow Patterns in Fluid)

Louvre Dampers (see Dampers)

Low Cement Castables (see Refractories)

Low NOx Burners (also see NOx in Flue Gas)

Low Sulphur Heavy Stock (see Fuel Oils under Liquid Fuels)

Low Temperature Corrosion (see Ash Corrosion)

Luminous Radiation (see Radiation in Heat Transfer)

L-Valve (see Loop Seal in Circulating Fluidised-Bed Combustion)

M

Magnetic Particle Testing (see Non-Destructive Testing in Testing of Materials)

Malleability (see Metal Properties)

Manometer (see Pressure Measurement under Instruments for Measurement)

Manufacturing Topics

Mass Blowing (see in Rotary Sootblowers under Soot Blowers)

Mass Burning (see Types of Firing in Grates)

Mass Velocity (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Materials of Construction

Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) (see Boiler Ratings)

Maximum Operating Pressure (see Allowable Pressure in Boiler Pressures)

Mean Metal Temperature (see Temperature in Pressure Part Design)

Mean Temperature Difference (see Log Mean Temperature Difference [LMTD or Δtm])

Membrane Panel/Wall (see Pressure Parts and Furnace in Heating Surfaces)

Metals

Metal Properties

Metallurgy

Methane (CH4) (see Gaseous Fuels)

Mills or Milling Plant (see Pulverisers)

Mineral Matter (see Coal Ash)

Mineral Wool (see Insulating Materials)

Moh’s Hardness Scale (see Metal Properties)

Molecular Weight/Mole/Molar Volume (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Mollier Chart/Diagram (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Mono Wall (see Pressure Parts and Furnace in Heating Surfaces)

Moody’s Friction Factor (see Fluid Flow)

Mountings and Fittings (see Auxiliaries)

Multiclones (see Dust Collection Equipment)

Municipal Solid Waste

MSW Boilers-Mass Burning (also see Grates: Reciprocating, Pulsating, Step or Pusher)

MSW Boilers: RDF Burning

N

Naphtha (see Liquid Fuels)

National Fire Prevention Association Codes

Natural Circulation (see Circulation)

Natural Convection (see Convection in Heat Transfer)

Natural Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Net Calorific Value (see Calorific Value)

Newtonian Fluid (see Fluid in Fluid Characteristics)

Nitrogen Oxides in Flue Gas

Noise Control

Non-Destructive Examination/Testing (see Testing of Materials)

Non-Luminous Radiation (see Radiation in Heat Transfer)

Normal Continuous Rating (see Boiler Ratings)

Nozzle

Nucleate Boiling (see Boiling in Properties of Steam and Water)

Nusselt Number (see Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer)

O

Operation and Maintenance Topics

Odourisation of Natural Gas (see Natural Gas in Gaseous Fuels)

Oil Ash

Oil and Gas Burners (see 1. Oil and Gas Burners, 2. Pulverised Fuel Burners, 3. Lignite and Brown Coal Firing and 4. Low NOx Burners)

Oil- and Gas-Fired Boilers

Oil Pumping and Heating Unit

Oil Shale (see Liquid Fuels)

Omega (Ω) Tubes

Once-Through Boiler

Once-Through Steam Generator

Opacity of Stack

Open Cycle in Gas Turbines (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Operating Pressure of Boiler (see Boiler Pressures)

Optical Pyrometer (see Temperature Measurement in Instruments)

Orbital Welding (see Welding)

Orifice

Orifice Meter/Plate (see Flow Measurement in Instruments)

Orimulsion (see Liquid Fuels)

Orsat Analyser (see Flue Gas Analysis in Instruments for Measurements)

Oxy-Fuel Combustion

Oxygen Scavenging (see Water)

Ozone (O3) at Ground Level (see Air Pollution)

P

Package Boilers (see Oil- and Gas-Fired Boilers)

Parallel Flow of Fluids (see Fluid Flow Patterns in Fluid Flow)

Partial Pressure of Gas (see Properties of Substances)

Particulate Matter in Flue Gas (see Air Pollution)

Peak Rating (see Boiler Ratings)

Peat

Pensky Marten Flash Point Testing Apparatus (see Liquid Fuels)

Percentage Saturated Water Head (see Circulation)

Performance Test Codes

Performance Testing (see Efficiency Testing of Boilers)

Petroleum/Crude Oil (see Liquid Fuels)

Petroleum Coke or Petcoke

pH (see Properties of Substances)

Piezometer (see Pressure Measurement in Instruments for Measurement)

Pile Burning

Pinch Point (in Hrsg) (see Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of Hrsg under Heat Recovery Steam Generators)

Pin Hole Grate (see Grates)

Pipes (see Materials of Construction and also see Tubes)

Piping or Ducting Losses (see Fluid Flow)

Pitot Tube (see Pressure Measurement in Instruments for Measurements)

Pitot-Static or Prandtl Tube (see Pressure Measurement in Instruments

for Measurements)

Pitting or Pitting Corrosion (see Corrosion)

Plastic Chrome Ore Refractory (see Refractories)

Platen Superheater (see Superheater in Heating Surfaces)

Pour Point (see Liquid Fuels)

Power Plant Cycles (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Prandtl Number (Pr) (see Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer)

Pressure (see Properties of Substances)

Pressure Parts or Scantlings (also see Heating Surfaces)

Pressure Measurement (see Instruments for Measurement)

Pressure Part Design (also see Stresses, Allowable or Permissible in Pressure Parts)

Pressure Reducing and Desuperheating (see Steam Conditioning)

Pressurised Firing (see Draught)

Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion (see Fluidised Bed Combustion)

Pressurised Milling (see Pulverisers)

Prime/Principal Fuel (see Fuel Firing Modes)

Priming (in Steam Drums) (see O&M [Operation and Maintenance] Topics)

Producer Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Projected Radiant Surface (see Furnace in Heating Surfaces)

Propeller Fans (see Axial Fans)

Properties of Air and Flue Gas

Properties of Steam and Water

Properties of Substances

Proximate Analysis (see Coal)

Psychrometric Chart

Pulsating Grate (see Grate Types)

Pulse Jet Filter (see Bag Filters)

Pulverising or Grinding

Pulverisers (see also Beater Mills in Lignite and Firing)

Pulverised Fuel Firing

Pulverised Fuel Burners (also see 1. Burners 2. Oil and Gas Burners 3. Lignite and Brown Coal Firing and 4. Low NOx Burners)

Pulverised Fuel Burner Arrangement

Pulverised Fuel-Fired Boilers (see also Utility Boilers)

Pulverised Fuel Piping

Pumps

Pumping and Heating Unit (see Oil Pumping and Heating Unit)

Purge Systems (see Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Pyrometer (see Temperature Measurement under Instruments for Measurement)

Pyrometric Cones (see Refractory Properties under Refractories)

R

Radiant Boilers (see Industrial Boilers)

Radiation Heat (see Heat Transfer)

Radiant Superheater (see Superheater Classification in Heating Surfaces)

Ramming Mix (see Refractories)

Rankine Cycle (see Thermodynamic Cycle)

Rayleigh Number (see Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer)

Refuse Derived Fuel-Fired Boilers (see MSW Boilers: RDF Burning)

Reburn (also see Reburning in Nitrogen Oxides in Flue Gas)

Recovery Boiler (also see Kraft Process)

Redwood Seconds of Viscosity (see Liquid Fuels and Instruments for Measurement)

Refinery Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Refractories

Refuse Derived Fuel (see Municipal Solid Waste)

Reheat (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Reheater (see Heating Surfaces)

Reheater Inlet and Outlet Pressure (see Boiler Pressures)

Reheater Outlet Temperature (see Boiler Temperatures)

Relative Density (see Specific Gravity in Properties of Substances)

Relative Humidity of Air (see in Properties of Substances)

Releasers or Risers (see Pressure Parts)

Remote Water Level Indicator (see Water Level Indicators and Direct Water Level Indicators)

Residence Time in Furnace (see Furnace Size or Volume in Heating Surfaces)

Reverse Gas Filters (see Dust Collection Equipment)

Reynold’s Number (Re) (see Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer)

Ribbed Tubes (see Boiling or Evaporation in Properties of Steam and Water)

Rice Husk/Rice Hull and Firing (see Agro-Fuels)

Rimmed Steel (see Deoxidation of Steels in Metallurgy)

Rifled Tubes (see Boiling or Evaporation in Properties of Steam and Water)

Ringlemann Number (see Opacity of Stack)

Risers (see Pressure Parts)

Residual Life Assessment (see Life Extension)

Rockwell Tests for Steel Hardness (see Testing of Materials)

Rockwool (see Mineral Wool or Rockwool in Insulating Materials)

Roughness Factor (see Moody’s Friction Factor in Fluid Flow)

S

Safety Valves (see Valves)

Safety Valve Floating (see Commissioning)

Saybolt Seconds (see Liquid Fuels and Instruments for Measurement)

Saturated Water (see Water in Properties of Steam and Water)

Scantlings (see Pressure Parts)

Schedule (of Pipes)

Scrubber

Seal Pot (see Loop Seal in Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (also see Post-Combustion Processes in Nitrogen Oxides in Flue Gases [NOx])

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (also see Post-Combustion Processes in Nitrogen Oxides in Flue Gases [NOx])

Self-Pulverisation (see Pulverising)

Separated Overfire Air (see also Nitrogen Oxides [NOx] in Flue Gas)

Shale Gas (see Gaseous Fuels)

Shell-Type Boiler (see Smoke Tube Boilers)

Silencers (see Noise Control)

Silica (SiO2) in Steam (see Steam Purity)

Silicon Carbide (see Castables under Refractories)

Simple Cycle Operation (of GTs) (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Single Drum Boilers (see Industrial Boilers)

Single-Pass Boilers (see Utility Boilers)

Siphon (see Loop Seal in Fluidised Bed Combustion, Circulating)

Slag Wool (see Insulating Materials)

Slagging and Fouling (see Ash)

Sliding Pressure Operation (see Variable Pressure Operation)

Sling Rods (see Structure, Boiler)

Sludge (see 1. Water and 2. Liquid Fuels)

Slug Flow (see Flow Types in Vertical and Horizontal Tubes)

Smelt (see Recovery Boilers)

Smoke Tube Boilers also Fire/Flue Tube and Shell/Shell and Tube Boilers

Hybrid Combination Boilers

Sodium Flame Photometry (see Steam Purity in Measurements in Boilers)

Softening Temperature of Ash (see Ash Fusibility)

Solid Fuels

Sonic Horns

Soot Blowers (also see Furnace Cleaning in Operation and Maintenance Topics)

Sour Gas (see Natural Gas in Gaseous Fuels)

SOx or Sulphur Oxides (see Air Pollution)

Specific Gravity (see Properties of Substances)

Specific Gravity of Fuel Oils (see Fuel Oils in Liquid Fuels)

Specific Volume (υ) (see Properties of Substances)

Specific Weight (Y) (see Properties of Substances)

Spontaneous Combustion

Spreader Burning

Spreader Stoker

Stack or Chimney

Stack Effect

Stainless Steels (see Metals)

Standard Wire Gauge (see Wire Gauge)

Stanton Number (see Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer)

Start up of Boiler (see Commissioning)

Start up Vent (see Vent Piping)

Start up Fan (see Boiler Fans under Fans)

Steam (also see Properties of Steam and Water)

Steam and Water Sampling System

Steam Blowing (see Commissioning)

Steam Coil Air Preheater (see Airheaters)

Steam Conditioning (also see Turbine Bypass Systems)

Steam by Weight and Volume (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Steam Cycle (see Thermodynamic Cycles)

Steam Drum (see Pressure Parts)

Steam Generator (see Boiler)

Steaming Economiser (see Economiser in Heating Surfaces)

Steam Mass Velocity (see Superheater in Heating Surfaces)

Steam Purification (also see Drum Internals)

Steam Purity

Steam Purity Measurement (see Instruments for Measurements)

Steam Quality or Dryness of Steam

Steam Quality Measurement (see Instruments for Measurements)

Steam Sampling (see Steam Purity Measurement under Instruments for Measurement)

Steam Scrubber (see Drum Internals)

Steam Separator (see Drum Internals)

Steam Temperature Control

Steam Turbine (see Turbine, Steam)

Steel (see Metals)

Steel Alloying Elements (see Metallurgy)

Steel Classification (see Metallurgy)

Steel Properties (see Metal Properties)

Stefan–Boltzmann’s Law of Radiation (see Radiation Heat under Heat Transfer)

Stellite Alloys

Steam Injected Gas Turbine Cycle (see Turbines, GT under GT Performance)

Stoichiometric Air (see Combustion)

Stoker Firing (see Grate Firing)

Stress

Stress Corrosion (see Corrosion)

Stress Rupture (see Metal Properties)

Stresses, Allowable or Permissible in Pressure Parts (also see Pressure Part Design)

Boiler Structure

Stubbed Drum (see Steam Drum under Pressure Parts)

Sub-Bituminous Coal

Sub-Cooled Water (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Sub-Critical Pressure (see Critical Pressure Point of Steam and Water)

Suction Milling (see Pulveriser Types under Pulverisers)

Sulphation Reaction (see Desulphurisation)

Sulphur Oxides (see Air Pollution)

Sulphur (in Coal) (see Sulphur in Ultimate Analysis in Coal)

Supercritical Boilers (see Utility Boilers)

Super-Critical Pressure (see Critical Point of Steam and Water)

Superheat (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Superheater (see Heating Surfaces (HSs) and Pressure Parts)

Superheater Outlet Pressure (see Boiler Pressures)

Superheater Outlet Temperature Boiler Steam Temperatures

Supplies (see Downcomers)

Surface Tension (see Fluid Properties under Fluid Characteristics)

Suspension Hangers/Slings/Rods (see Sling Rods)

Swaging (see Tube Swaging under Manufacturing Topics)

Sweet Gas (see Natural Gas)

Swell Effect in Steam Drums (see Swell Volume in Steam Drum under Pressure Parts)

System Resistance of Boiler

T

T Firing (see Pulverised Fuel Burner Arrangement)

Tangent Tube Walls (see Heating Surfaces Pressure Parts)

Tangential Burners (see Pulverised Fuel Burners)

Temperature (T, t) (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Temperature of Gas (High-Velocity and Multiple-Shield High-Velocity Thermocouples) (also see High-Velocity and Multiple-Shield High Velocity Thermocouples under Instruments for Measurement)

Temperature–Entropy Diagram (see Critical Pressure Point in Steam and Water)

Temperature Measurement (see Instruments for Measurements)

Tempering Air for Mill

Tensile Strength (see Metal Properties)

Tensile Test (see Testing of Materials)

Testing of Materials (Metals)

Thermal Efficiency (see Efficiency of Boiler)

Thermal Flux (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Thermal Resistivity (see Thermal Conductivity under Thermodynamic Properties)

Thermodynamic Cycles

Thermodynamic Processes

Thermodynamic Properties

Thermal Energy (see Thermodynamic Properties)

Thermocouple (see Instruments for Measurements)

Thermometer (see Instruments for Measurements)

Throttling (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Throttling Calorimeter (see Steam Quality in Instruments for Measurement)

Tie Bars/Tie Channels (also see Furnace Pressure in Furnace under Heating Surfaces)

Top-Supported Boiler (see Boiler-Supporting Systems in Structure)

Top-Suspension Girders (see Structure)

Top Suspension Hangers (see Structure)

Total Dissolved Solids in Water (TDS)

Toughness (see Metal Properties)

Tower-Type Boilers (see Utility Boilers)

Transition Flow (see Fluid Flow Types)

Transmissivity (see Radiation Heat under Heat Transfer)

Travelling Grate (see Grates, Travelling)

Tube Expansion (see Manufacturing Topics)

Tube Swaging (see Manufacturing Topics)

Tubes (see Materials of Construction)

Turbines, Gas

Turbines, Steam

Turbine Bypass Systems

Turbulent Flow (see Fluid Flow Types)

Turndown

Two-Pass Boilers (see Utility Boilers)

Two-Phase Flow (also see Circulation and Flow Types in Vertical and Horizontal Tubes)

U

Ultrasonic Testing (see Non-Destructive Testing/Examination under Testing of Materials (Metals))

Utility Boiler (also see 1. Boilers, 2. Boiler Classification and 3. Industrial Boilers)

Ultimate Analysis (see Coal)

Ultrasonic Testing (see Non-Destructive Examination)

Ultra Supercritical Boilers (see SC Boilers)

Universal Pressure Boiler (see Supercritical Boilers)

V

Vacuum Degassing of Steel (see Metallurgy)

Valve Wide Open Condition (see Boiler Rating)

Valves

Valves in Boiler

Vapour

Vapour Pressure (see Fluid Properties under Fluid Characteristics)

Vanadium in Oil Ash (see Oil Ash Corrosion)

Variable/Sliding Pressure Operation of Boilers

Vegetable Fuels (see Agro-Fuels)

Velocity Coefficient

Velocities of Fluids (see Fluid Velocities)

Vena Contracta (see Fluid Flow)

Vent Piping (also see Integral Piping in Pressure Parts)

Ventilation of Boiler Room

Venturi Meter/Tube (see Instruments for Measurement)

Vertical or Down Shot Burners (see Pulverised Fuel Burners)

Vertical Economisers (see Economiser in BLR Boiler Construction under Recovery Boilers)

Vertical Mills (see Pulverisers)

Vicker’s Test (see Hardness Testing of Metals in Testing)

Viscosity, Absolute/Dynamic and Kinematic (see Fluid Characteristics)

Volatile Matter (see Coal)

Volatile Organic Compounds

Volumetric Machines (see Ambient Conditions)

W

Wall Blowers (see Soot Blowers)

Waste Fuels

Waste Heat

Waste Heat Recovery Boilers (see also Industrial Boilers and Heat Recovery Steam Generators)

Water

Water Carryover (see Steam Purity)

Water Drum (see Pressure Parts)

Water-Holding Capacity of Boiler (also see Steam Drum in Pressure Parts)

Water Lancing (see Soot Blowers)

Water Level Indicators (see also Direct Water Level Indicators and Remote Water Level Indicators)

Water Tube Boilers (see Boilers)

Water Wall (also see Furnace Wall Construction in Heating Surfaces)

Water Wall Circuit (see Circulation)

Wear

Welding

Wet Air (in Combustion) (see Combustion Calculations in Combustion)

Wet Bulb Temperature Twb (see Psychrometric Chart)

Wet Flue Gas (see Properties of Air and Flue Gas)

Wet Scrubbers (see Dust Collection Equipment)

Wet Steam (see Properties of Steam and Water)

Wet Wall Flow (see Properties of Steam and Water)

White Liquor (see Kraft Pulping Process and Recovery Boiler)

Wire Gauge

Wobbe Index (see Gaseous Fuels)

Wood and Firing (see Agro-Fuels)

Y

Yancey–Geer Price Index for Coal Abrasion (see Wear)

Yield Point (see Tensile Test in Testing and Metal Properties)

Yield Strength (see Tensile Test in Testing and Metal Properties)

List of Abbreviations

Symbols of Elements and Compounds

List of Symbols

Organisations Related to Boilers

References and Further Reading

Codes

Books

Technical Articles/Reports

Appendix 1: Combustion Constants

Appendix 2 : The Periodic Table of Elements

Appendix 3: Coals of the World

Index

About the Author

Kumar Rayaprolu has had an uninterrupted association with boilers for over four decades and has naturally developed some deep technical and business insights. He has gathered a well-rounded and overall experience of design, development, engineering, project execution, estimation, proposals, marketing, manufacturing, and commissioning. He was a business head for more than 15 years but managed to retain engineering function all through his career. The author’s first book on boilers, Boilers for Power and Process, was published in April 2009 by CRC Press and was well received. This is his second book.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC005050
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General