1st Edition

British Politics and the Environment in the Long Nineteenth Century

Edited By Peter Hough
    by Routledge

    This two volume compendium of archival source material chronicles British environmental politics between 1789 and 1914. The collection examines scientific discoveries and the result of these findings on the political environment, bringing the publics attention to public health issues such as acid rain and river pollution. The texts explore environmental conservationism as both an artistic and a political movement, and the ways in which environmental policy was regulated. Finally, the volumes explore the environmental costs of British imperialism in the nineteenth century, such as resource depletion and military ecocide. Accompanied by extensive editorial commentary, this collection will be of great interest to students of environmental and political history.

    Volume 1


    Note on Copy-Texts

    General Introduction


    Part 1. Discovering Nature: Science and the Environment in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Chronology of Science and the Environment in the Nineteenth Century

    Volume I Part 1 Introduction

    1.1 Biodiversity Decline

    1. Gilbert White The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne

    2. William Roxburgh Letter to Joseph Banks

    3. Alexander Beatson Tracts Relative To The Island Of St. Helena: Written During A Residence Of Five Years

    4. William John Burchell Residence in Cape Town, and Rambles in the Vicinity

    5. Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology

    6. Charles Darwin Origin of the Species

    7. James Cowles Prichard The natural history of man : comprising inquiries into the modifying influence of physical and moral agencies on the different tribes of the human family

    8. Alfred Newton Abstract of Mr. J. Wolley’s researches in Iceland respecting the gare-fowl or great auk

    9. Arthur Tansley Presidential Address (British Ecological Society)

    1.2 Resource Depletion

    10. Thomas Malthus An Essay on the Principle of Population

    11. William Forster Lloyd On the Checks to Population

    12. William Farr Economic Value of Population

    13. William Jevons The Coal Question; An Inquiry concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of our Coal-mines

    14. John Cleghorn On the fluctuations in the herring fisheries

    15. Thomas Huxley Inaugural Address. Fisheries Exhibition, London

    16. John Croumbie Browne On Forest Schools

    17. William Somerville Forestry in Some of its Economic Aspects

    1.3 Pollution

    18. Henry W. Fuller On the Use of the Arsenic in Agriculture-Poisoning by Arsenic, and Symptoms of Cholera-The Possible Effect of the Game Laws

    19. John Snow On the Mode of Communication of Cholera

    20. Robert Angus Smith Air and rain : the beginnings of a chemical climatology

    21. Michael Faraday Observations on the Filth of the Thames

    22. Cardiff Rural Sanitary Authority 'Pollution on Glamorganshire’s Rivers'

    23. John Tyndall On Radiation Through the Earth’s Atmosphere

    24. Ernest Hart Smoke abatement: a lecture delivered in the lecture room of the International Health Exhibition

    25. John Graham The Destruction of Daylight. A Study in the Smoke Problem


    Part 2: Romanticizing Nature: Environmental Conservation as a Nationalistic Artistic and Political Movement in Nineteenth-Century Britain


    Volume I Part 2 Introduction

    2.1 Aesthetes and Conservation

    26. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 'The Raven'

    27. William Wordsworth, The Excursion

    28. Alfred Tennyson 'In Memoriam A.H.H.'

    29. John Ruskin, A Protest Against the Extension of Railways in the Lake District

    30. George Eliot, Silas Marner

    31. William Morris, Under an Elm Tree; or, Thoughts in the Country-Side

    32. John Clare 'Remembrances'

    33. Octavia Hill, Our Common Land

    34. Anna Sewell, Black Beauty

    35. Louise De la Ramée (aka Ouida), The Waters of Edera

    36. Edward Carpenter, My Days and Dreams

    37. John Muir My First Summer in the Sierra

    2.2 Conserving Nature and the Aristocracy

    38. Jane Austen, Emma

    39. William Cobbett, Rural Rides

    40. Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil

    41. Thomas Carlyle, Sign of the Times

    42. Thomas Hardy 'The Dorsetshire Labourer'

    43. Thomas Stafford Raffles, London Zoological Society

    44. Richard Lydekker, The Game Animals of Africa (dedicated to Herbrand Russell)

    45. Charles Rothschild, Nature Reserves: Formation of a New Society

    2.3 Conservation and Fear of the Future

    46. William Deslisle Hay, The Doom of the Great City: Being the Narrative of a Survivor

    47. Alfred Russel Wallace, The Plunder of the Earth

    48. Reginald Brabazon (Lord Meath), The National Standard of Physical Health

    49. Charles Masterton & Phillip Wilson, The Heart of the Empire

    50. H. G. Wells A Modern Utopia




    Volume 2


    Notes on Copy-Texts

    General Introduction

    Part 1: Regulating Nature: The Environment and Policy in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Chronology of the Environment and Policy in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Volume II Part 1 Introduction

    1.1 Public Health

    1. Charles Knight, The Staffordshire Collieries

    2. Edwin Chadwick, Report on Sanitary Conditions

    3. Alexis De Toqueville, Journeys to England and Ireland

    4. Friedrich Engels, Condition of the Working Class in England

    5. Charles Dickens, The Uncommercial Traveller

    6. Fisheries Preservation Association, On the Pollution of the Rivers of the Kingdom

    7. Lord Walsingham, Alkali Act Amendment Bill

    8. David John Russell Duncan, On Smoke Abatement

    1.2 Animal Cruelty

    9. John Oswald, The Cry of Nature. Or, an Appeal to Mercy and Justice on Behalf of the Persecuted Animals

    10. Thomas Erskine, Baron, Cruelty to Animals

    11. Richard Martin, Bear Bating and Other Cruel Sports

    12. John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy (Volume 2)

    13. Joseph Pease, Cruelty to Animals Act

    14. Lewis Gompertz, Fragments in Defence of Animals, and Essays on Morals, Soul, and Future State

    15. John Percival, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Bill

    16. Frances Power Cobbe, The Moral Aspects of Vivesection

    17. Reverend Richard Wilson, 'A Plea for the Sea Birds'

    18. William Warde Fowler A Year With the Birds

    19. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Bird News

    20. John Lubbock (1st Baron Avebury), Importation of Plumage Prohibition Bill

    1.3 The Commons

    21. Alexander MacKenzie, The History of the Highland Clearances

    22. Samuel Smiles, Mr Rennie’s Drainage of the Lincoln and Cambridge Fens

    23. George Shaw Lefevre, English Commons and Forests. The Story of the Battle During the Last Thirty Years for Public Rights Over the Commons and Forests of England and Wales

    24. James Bryce, Access to Mountains

    25. Robert Hunter, Commons


    Part 2: Conquering Nature: The Environment in British Imperialism and Foreign Policy in the Nineteenth Century

    Chronology of the Environment in British Imperialism and Foreign Policy in the Nineteenth Century

    Volume II Part 2 Introduction

    2.1 Imperial Sustainability

    26. Philip Viberi, A Few hints on Foreign and Home Colonization

    27. Harold J. MacKinder, On the Scope and Methods of Geography

    28. Charles Edward Trevelyan, The Irish Crisis

    29. Viceroy Lord Lytton, 'The Famine Campaign in Southern India, Madras and Bombay Presidencies and Province of Mysore'

    30. James Atkinson, An Account of the State of Agriculture and Grazing in New South Wales: Including Observations on the Soils and General Appearance of the Country

    31. William Patrick Andrew, The Scinde Railway and its Relations to the Euphrates Valley and Other Routes to India

    32. Michael Hicks-Beach, Further Despatches from the Secretary of State to the Governor of New Zealand. Presented to Both Houses of the General Assembly by Command of His Excellency

    33. Lord Curzon, Speech to the Burma Game Preservation Association, Rangoon

    34. William Scoresby, An Account of the Arctic Regions

    35. Central Government Act: The Oriental Gas Company

    2.2 Military Ecocide

    36. Lord Viscount Wellington, Marshall General, Proclamation to the People of Portugal

    37. John Davy, An Account of the Interior of Ceylon and of its Inhabitants with Travels in that Island

    38. Francis Foster, Letter to Parents

    39. Colonel Whitmore, Letter to the Hon. Colonel Haultain

    40. Francis Stirling, Despatches Received by the Admiralty Regarding the Murder in Malay of James Birch

    41. Emily Hobhouse, The Brunt of the War and Where it Fell

    42. William Wallace, Annual Report of the Colonies: Northern Nigeria

    2.3 The Birth of Global Environmental Policy

    43. George Cornewall Lewis, Memorandum Respecting Quarantine Regulations in the Mediterranean

    44. Convention for Regulating the Police of the North Sea Fisheries 

    45. Treaty Concerning the Jan Mayen Seal Fishery

    46. Award Between the United States and the United Kingdom Relating to the Rights of Jurisdiction of United States in the Bering's Sea and the Preservation of Fur Seals

    47. Convention Between the United States, Great Britain, Russia and Japan for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals

    48. Convention Designed To Ensure The Conservation Of Various Species Of Wild Animals In Africa, Which Are Useful To Man Or Inoffensive

    49. Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire

    50. Convention (II) with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land and Its Annex: Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land




    Peter Hough is an Associate Professor in International Politics at Middlesex University, London. He is the author of Back to the future: environmental security in nineteenth century global politics (2019).