Building Limes in Conservation
Conservation practitioners have long recognized the importance of using limes in repairing historic buildings. But research into the application of limes over the past twenty years has revealed that many of our assumptions about how limes were used historically may well be over-simplistic or even wrong. This book brings together a selection of the best material, revised and updated, which first appeared in the Journal of Architectural Conservation and in the Journal of the Building Limes Forum. The very useful Introduction traces developments in lime-based materials, including the establishment of hydraulic limes into the market and the decline in the use of Portland cement for conservation work. Part 1 focuses on understanding the nature and origins of lime and lime based mortars, including hydraulic lime and Roman cements. Part 2 covers research and analysis of lime materials with investigations into the current standards for their use. Part 3 examines the techniques that were used historically and how these can be applied today, offering examples from current practice. These include the use of hot lime mortars and recent material on nano-lime.Architects, conservation practitioners, construction historians and those researching developments in lime will find this an informative and useful source of reference.
Introduction, Ian Brocklebank; Section 1 New understandings of historic materials; The Lime Spectrum, Ian Brocklebank; Lime after Vicat, Pierre Begoin, tr. Ugo Spano; Structural Properties of lime-mortared masonry, Pete Walker and Zhaoxia Zhou; Portland cement strengths through the ages, Paul Livesey; Developments in the use of lime in London c.1760-1840, Ian Brocklebank; The History, use and analysis ofRoman Cement, David Hughes, Simon Swann, Alan Gardner & Vicenzo Starinieri; Section 2 Materials analysis, testing and standards; Building Limes Standard BS EN459:2010, Steve Foster; Laboratory investigation of lime mortars, plasters and renders, Jeremy Ingham; Diagnosing defects in lime-based materials, Jeremy Ingham; Sands and aggregates for use in lime mortars, Roz Artis; To Wake a Gentle Giant - Grey Chalk Limes Test the Standards, Stafford Holmes; Section 3 Rediscovering methods and techniques; Lime Mortars: The myth in the mix, Gerard Lynch; The use of pozzolans in lime mortars, Geoff Boffey, Elizabeth Hirst and Paul Livesey; The use of lime mortars and renders in extreme weather conditions, Paul Livesey; Hot-lime mortars, Alan Forster; Hot Lime mortar in Conservation: Repair and replastering of the facades of Lacko Castle, Ewa Sandstrom Malinowski and Torben Seir Hanse; A study of historic lime mortars at Ardfert Cathedral,Grellan Rourke; Nano-lime for consolidation of Plaster and Stone, Paul D'Armada and Elizabeth Hirst;