Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Business Improvement Districts

Research, Theories, and Controversies, 1st Edition

Edited by Goktug Morcol, Lorlene Hoyt, Jack W. Meek, Ulf Zimmermann


544 pages | 50 Color Illus. | 15 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781420045765
pub: 2008-04-21
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Initiated and governed by property or business owners under the authorization of state and local governments, business improvement districts (BIDs) have received a very mixed reception. To some, they are innovative examples of self-governance and public-private partnerships; to others, they are yet another example of the movement toward the privatization of what should be inherent government responsibilities.

Among the first books to present a collection of scholarly work on the subject, Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies brings together renowned leaders in the field to compile the highest-quality theoretical, legal, and empirical studies into one comprehensive volume. Investigating fundamental concerns at the core of the debate, as well as potential solutions, this groundbreaking resource:

  • Tackles the need for improved problem solving and efficiency in service delivery
  • Examines new and innovative policy tools for both the public and private sectors
  • Evaluates whether BIDs do ignore the needs and voices of residential property owners
  • Discusses the challenge created by social segregation in cities
  • Addresses lack of accountability by BIDs to the public and elected representatives

From different perspectives, leading practitioners and academics analyze the pros and cons of BIDs both in the United States and around the world. They look at their impact on urban planning and retail revitalization, consider their legal implications, and explore ways to measure BID performance. Filled with case studies of urban centers including San Diego, Atlanta, New York, Toronto, and Capetown, and state models such as New Jersey and Pennsylvania, this examination bring together essential information for researchers as well as those leaders and policy makers looking to adopt a BID model or improve one already in place.

Table of Contents

Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies, G. Morçöl, L. Hoyt, J. Meek, andU. Zimmermann


Metropolitan Governance and Business Improvement Districts, G. Morçöl and U. Zimmermann

Private Governments: A Polycentric Perspective, S.E. Baer

From Town Center Management to the BID Model in Britain:

Toward a New Contractualism? G. Lloyd and D. Peel

BIDs Farewell: The Democratic Accountability of Business Improvement Districts, B.R. Hochleutner

From North America to Africa: The BID Model and the Role of Policy Entrepreneurs, L. Hoyt

The BID Model in Canada and the United States: The Retail-Revitalization Nexus, D. Gopal-Agge and L.Hoyt


Private Governments or Public Policy Tools? The Law and

Public Policy of New Jersey’s Special Improvement Districts, J.B. Justice and R.S. Goldsmith

Business Improvement Districts in the Los Angeles

Metropolitan Area: Implications for Local Governance, J. Meek and P. Hubler

Business Improvement Districts in New York City’s Low- and

High-Income Neighborhoods, J.S. Gross

Business Improvement Districts and Small Business Advocacy: The Case of San Diego, R.J. Stokes

Business Improvement Districts’ Approaches to Working with Local Governments, J.F .Wolf

Business Improvement Districts in Pennsylvania: Implications for Democratic Metropolitan Governance,

G. Morçöl and P.A. Patrick

Getting the Max for the Tax: An Examination of Bid Performance Measures, G. Caruso and R. Weber

Community Improvement Districts in Metropolitan Atlanta, G. Morçöl and U. Zimmermann

Contesting Public Space and Citizenship: Implications for Neighborhood Business Improvement Districts, S. Schaller and G. Modan


The Strategic Evolution of the BID Model in Canada, T. Hernandez and K. Jones

British Town Center Management: Setting the Stage for the BID Model in Europe, A. Reeve

Business Improvement Districts in England: The UK Government’s Proposals, Enactment, and Guidance,

M. Blackwell

The Adoption of the BID Model in Ireland: Context and Considerations, J. Ratcliffe and B. Ryan


About the Series

Public Administration and Public Policy

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