1st Edition

Business Improvement Districts Research, Theories, and Controversies

    548 Pages 50 Color & 15 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    544 Pages 50 Color & 15 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Initiated and governed by property or business owners under the authorization of state and local governments, business improvement districts (BIDs) have received a very mixed reception. To some, they are innovative examples of self-governance and public-private partnerships; to others, they are yet another example of the movement toward the privatization of what should be inherent government responsibilities.

    Among the first books to present a collection of scholarly work on the subject, Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies brings together renowned leaders in the field to compile the highest-quality theoretical, legal, and empirical studies into one comprehensive volume. Investigating fundamental concerns at the core of the debate, as well as potential solutions, this groundbreaking resource:

    • Tackles the need for improved problem solving and efficiency in service delivery
    • Examines new and innovative policy tools for both the public and private sectors
    • Evaluates whether BIDs do ignore the needs and voices of residential property owners
    • Discusses the challenge created by social segregation in cities
    • Addresses lack of accountability by BIDs to the public and elected representatives

    From different perspectives, leading practitioners and academics analyze the pros and cons of BIDs both in the United States and around the world. They look at their impact on urban planning and retail revitalization, consider their legal implications, and explore ways to measure BID performance. Filled with case studies of urban centers including San Diego, Atlanta, New York, Toronto, and Capetown, and state models such as New Jersey and Pennsylvania, this examination bring together essential information for researchers as well as those leaders and policy makers looking to adopt a BID model or improve one already in place.

    Business Improvement Districts: Research, Theories, and Controversies, G. Morçöl, L. Hoyt, J. Meek, andU. Zimmermann
    Metropolitan Governance and Business Improvement Districts, G. Morçöl and U. Zimmermann
    Private Governments: A Polycentric Perspective, S.E. Baer
    From Town Center Management to the BID Model in Britain:
    Toward a New Contractualism? G. Lloyd and D. Peel
    BIDs Farewell: The Democratic Accountability of Business Improvement Districts, B.R. Hochleutner
    From North America to Africa: The BID Model and the Role of Policy Entrepreneurs, L. Hoyt
    The BID Model in Canada and the United States: The Retail-Revitalization Nexus, D. Gopal-Agge and L.Hoyt
    Private Governments or Public Policy Tools? The Law and
    Public Policy of New Jersey’s Special Improvement Districts, J.B. Justice and R.S. Goldsmith
    Business Improvement Districts in the Los Angeles
    Metropolitan Area: Implications for Local Governance, J. Meek and P. Hubler
    Business Improvement Districts in New York City’s Low- and
    High-Income Neighborhoods, J.S. Gross
    Business Improvement Districts and Small Business Advocacy: The Case of San Diego, R.J. Stokes
    Business Improvement Districts’ Approaches to Working with Local Governments, J.F .Wolf
    Business Improvement Districts in Pennsylvania: Implications for Democratic Metropolitan Governance,
    G. Morçöl and P.A. Patrick
    Getting the Max for the Tax: An Examination of Bid Performance Measures, G. Caruso and R. Weber
    Community Improvement Districts in Metropolitan Atlanta, G. Morçöl and U. Zimmermann
    Contesting Public Space and Citizenship: Implications for Neighborhood Business Improvement Districts, S. Schaller and G. Modan
    The Strategic Evolution of the BID Model in Canada, T. Hernandez and K. Jones
    British Town Center Management: Setting the Stage for the BID Model in Europe, A. Reeve
    Business Improvement Districts in England: The UK Government’s Proposals, Enactment, and Guidance,
    M. Blackwell
    The Adoption of the BID Model in Ireland: Context and Considerations, J. Ratcliffe and B. Ryan


    Goktug Morcol (Pennsylvania State University-Harrisburg, Middletown, USA) (Edited by) ,  Lorlene Hoyt (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA) (Edited by) ,  Jack W. Meek (University of La Verne, California, USA) (Edited by) ,  Ulf Zimmermann (Kennesaw State University, Georgia, USA) (Edited by)