C2 Re-envisioned: The Future of the Enterprise, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

C2 Re-envisioned

The Future of the Enterprise, 1st Edition

By Marius S. Vassiliou, David S. Alberts, Jonathan Russell Agre

CRC Press

316 pages | 92 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-12-08
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Command and Control (C2) is the set of organizational and technical attributes and processes by which an enterprise marshals and employs human, physical, and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions.C2 Re-envisioned: The Future of the Enterprise identifies four interrelated megatrends that are individually and collectively shaping the state of the art and practice of C2 as well as the mission challenges we face.

These megatrends the book examines are:

  • Big Problems—manifested in part as increasing complexity of both endeavors and enterprises, as military establishments form coalitions with each other, and partnerships with various civilian agencies and non-governmental organizations
  • Robustly Networked Environments—enabled by the extremely broad availability of advanced information and communications technologies (ICT) that place unprecedented powers of information creation, processing, and distribution in the hands of almost anyone who wants them—friend and foe alike
  • Ubiquitous Data—the unprecedented volumes of raw and processed information with which human actors and C2 systems must contend
  • Organizational alternatives—as decentralized, net-enabled approaches to C2 have been made more feasible by technology.

The book analyzes historical examples and experimental evidence to determine the critical factors that make C2 go wrong and how to get it right. Successful enterprises in the future will be those that can reconfigure their approaches in an agile manner. Offering fresh perspectives on this subject of critical importance, this book provides the understanding you will need to choose your organizational approaches to suit the mission and the conditions at hand.

Table of Contents

Introduction and a Tale of Two Missions

What We Mean by Command and Control

What This Book Is About

What This Book Is Not About

Prelude: A Tale of Two Missions

Nelson at Trafalgar

U.S. Hostage Rescue Mission of 1980

What Can We Learn?

Megatrends Affecting the Future of the Enterprise

The Four Megatrends

Megatrend 1: Big Problems

Difficulty of Big Problems

Size and Affordability

Dynamics and Time Pressure

Problem Complexity and Residual Uncertainty


Big Problem Stresses on Traditional Enterprises

Megatrend 2: Robustly Networked Environments

Explosion in Advanced Information and Communications Technologies

The Technology Explosion Has Been Largely Commercial

Are Commercial ICTs Better?

Implications for Military C2

Implication 1: Advanced ICT Is Available to Everyone

Implication 2: Advanced ICT and the Robustly Networked Environment Enable New Forms of Organization

Implication 3: New Recruits Are Already Immersed in the New Technologies

Implication 4: Military Establishments Must Adopt Commercial ICTs When Possible

Implication 5: Military Establishments Must Still Do Specialized Research When Commercial ICTs Cannot Do the Job

Lack of Infrastructure

Multihop Networks

Multiple Heterogeneous Networks

Complex and Contested Electromagnetic Environments

Implication 6: By Being Creative and Adopting Some Commercial Innovation Practices, Military Establishments Can Duplicate Some Level of Commercial Success

General Remarks

Megatrend 3: Ubiquitous Data


Sources of Ubiquitous Data


Problems Caused by Ubiquitous Data

Operator Overload

Data Volume

Trustworthiness of Data

Sharing and Interoperability

Data and Information Quality

Metrics and Tools for Data and Information Quality

Enterprise Information Quality

Information Quality and C2

Examples of Information Quality Effects on C2 Operations

Technological Solutions

Data Curation

Big Data Analysis

Onboard Processing

Human-Computer Interface

Technology and the C2 Organization

Concluding Remarks

Megatrend 4: New Forms of Organization


C2 Approaches

6.2.1 Notional Organizational Examples

C2 Approach Space

C2 Approach Space for Collective Endeavors

Business Organizations

Mintzberg’s Organizational Archetypes

The Aston Studies


Theory X, Theory Y, and Trust

Are Hierarchies and Bureaucracies Things of the Past?

Decentralized Organizations

Mission Command


Essential Features of Mission Command

Development of Mission Command in the Prussian and German Armies

The Term "Auftragstaktik"

Frederick the Great

Prussian Defeat by Napoleon and Resulting Reforms

Von Moltke and the Development of Mission Command

Austro-Prussian War

Franco-Prussian War

Drill Regulations of 1888

World War I

Between the Wars

World War II

Naval Traditions Resembling Mission Command

Modern Doctrinal Statements Supporting Mission Command

Doctrine Is Not Enough

General Remarks

How C2 Goes Wrong


C2 Failures

A Priori Structural Problems

Inability to Communicate

Inability to Communicate Because of Circumstances

Destruction of Infrastructure or Equipment

Physical Impossibility

Denial by Adversary

Inability to Communicate Because of System Design or Policy Shortfalls

Shortage of Appropriate Equipment or Bandwidth

Lack of Interoperability

Security Constraints

Summary of Factors

C2 Failure Model

Causes of Failure

Failures by Design

Failures Due to Changes in Circumstances

Attribution of Cause

Analysis of an Example in More Detail

Applying the Analysis to an Example of Success

Final Remarks

Experimental Evidence and Analysis


Nature of Experimental Evidence

ELICIT Experiments

IMAGE Experiments

WISE Experiments

PANOPEA Experiments

Empirical Support for Hypotheses about Organizational Designs and Enterprise/C2 Approaches

Endeavor Space

Endeavor Space Applied to Testing That There Is No Universal C2 Approach

Empirical Support for Hypotheses about Traditional Hierarchies

Empirical Support for Hypotheses about Decentralized, Net-Enabled (Edge) Organizations

Empirical Support for Hypotheses about the Properties of C2 Approaches

Empirical Support for Hypotheses about Organizational Design Choices Being Constrained by Capabilities and Circumstances

Enterprise of the Future

Agile C2 for an Agile Enterprise

Developing Enterprise Approach Options

Understanding Which Approach Is Appropriate

Shifting from One Approach to Another

Ensure Access to the Desired Regions of the Approach Space

Beyond C2 Agility

From Data to Shared Understanding

Data Collection

Data to Understanding

Understanding to Shared Understanding

Assured Infostructure


Key Questions for the Enterprise of the Future

Key Attributes of the Enterprise of the Future

Agile and Prizing Agility

Robustly Connected—Task Clustered

Information Savvy

Willing and Able to Adopt a Variety of Network-Enabled Approaches to C2

Differences between Current Enterprises and theEnterprises of the Future

View of Self

Risk Management

Lack of Inertia

Infostructure Capabilities

The Way Ahead

Glossary of Acronyms

Appendix A

Appendix B



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Disasters & Disaster Relief
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications