104th Edition

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

Edited By John Rumble Copyright 2023
    1604 Pages 1000 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    High Quality Science requires High Quality Data! Today, more than ever, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is critical in ensuring that researchers, educators, and students have the highest quality data for chemical compounds and physical particles. Available both in print and online, the Handbook covers 390 chemistry, physics, and related subjects organized in easy-to-find, well-organized tables. Every year, new reported data and new scientific areas are added, making the Handbook  the largest comprehensive physical science data source available anywhere.

    The 104th Edition of the Handbook has been completely reorganized to meet the needs of today’s scientists. The first section has property data on the elements, organic and inorganic compounds, water, bio-medical compounds, and polymers. Other sections focus on applications of chemical and physical data, data of importance in laboratory work, and information of units and nomenclature. The purpose of the reorganization is to make sure users can easily find all data on related subjects.

    Handbook features include:

    • All data reviewed and evaluated by subject matter experts
    • Standardized chemical names, structures, property names, and property units
    • Important information on subjects such as chemical and laboratory safety, and nomenclature
    • Chemical and physical data critical for fields such as environmental science, bio-medical chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, materials innovation, geo- and astrophysics, and solid-state science
    • Digital tools in our Online Edition to analyze, graph, process, and exploit our data content


    The Editor and Editorial Board


    New Data and Updates in the 104th Edition

    On the Evaluation of Chemistry and Physics Data

    Current Contributors

    Part 1 Data on Chemical Substances

    Section 1: Elements and Their Isotopes


    The Elements

    Standard Atomic Weights

    Atomic Masses and Isotopic Abundances

    Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea

    Melting, Boiling, Triple, and Critical Points and Densities of the Elements

    Heat Capacity of the Elements at 25 °C

    Table of the Isotopes

    Phase Transitions in the Solid Elements at Atmospheric Pressure

    Crystal Structures and Lattice Parameters of Allotropes of the Elements

    Density of Molten Elements as a Function of Temperature

    Physical Properties of the Rare-Earth Metals

    Thermal and Physical Properties of Pure Elemental Metals

    Electrical Resistivity of Pure Elemental Metals

    Electron Work Function of the Elements

    Magnetic Susceptibility of the Elements

    Optical Properties of Selected Elements

    Index of Refraction of Liquid Elements

    Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - Equations

    Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - Data

    Section 2: Atomic Structure and Spectroscopy Data


    Electron Configuration and Ionization Energy of Neutral Atoms in the Ground State

    Ionization Energies of Atoms and Atomic Ions

    Electron Affinities of the Atomic Elements

    Persistent Lines of the Neutral Atomic Elements

    Atomic Transition Probabilities

    Atomic Radii of the Elements

    Polarizabilities of the Atomic Elements

    Section 3: Properties of Organic Compounds


    Physical Constants of Organic Compounds

    CAS Registry Number Index of Organic Compounds

    Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Selected Organic Compounds

    Critical Constants of Organic Compounds

    Dissociation Constants of Organic Acids and Bases

    Miscibility of Organic Solvents

    Dependence of Boiling Point of Organic Liquids on Pressure

    Bond Lengths in Crystalline Organic Compounds

    Bond Lengths in Organometallic Compounds

    Section 4: Properties of Inorganic Compounds


    Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds

    CAS Registry Number Index of Inorganic Compounds

    Critical Constants of Inorganic Compounds

    Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Inorganic Solids

    Density of Molten Inorganic Salts as a Function of Temperature

    Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases

    Index of Refraction of Inorganic Liquids

    Index of Refraction of Inorganic Crystals

    Magnetic Susceptibility of Selected Inorganic Compounds

    Optical Properties of Selected Inorganic Solids and Teflon

    Aqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds as a Function of Temperature

    Solubility Product Constants of Inorganic Salts

    Solubility Chart for Inorganic Salts

    Solubility of Common Inorganic Salts as a Function of Temperature

    Properties of Gas Clathrate Hydrates

    Physical and Optical Properties of Minerals

    Crystallographic Data on Minerals

    Section 5: Properties of Water


    Thermophysical Properties of Water and Steam

    Fixed-Point Thermophysical Properties of H2O and D2O

    Properties of Saturated Liquid D2O

    Vapor Pressure and Other Saturation Properties of Water

    Standard Density of Water as a Function of Temperature

    Ionization Constant of Water as a Function of Temperature and Pressure

    Ionization Constant of Normal and Heavy Water at Saturated Vapor Pressure

    Electrical Conductivity of Water

    Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Water at Various Frequencies

    Properties of Ice and Supercooled Water

    Vapor Pressure of Ice

    Melting Point of Ice as a Function of Pressure

    Index of Refraction of Water

    Section 6: Properties of Polymers


    Abbreviations Used in Polymer Science and Technology

    Physical Properties of Selected Polymers

    Solvents for Common Polymers

    Glass Transition Temperatures for Selected Polymers

    Dielectric Constant of Selected Polymers

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature Relationships for Polymer Melts

    Vapor Pressures (Solvent Activities) for Binary Polymer Solutions

    Solubility Parameters of Selected Polymers

    Section 7: Properties of Bio-Medical Compounds and Substances


    Properties of Amino Acids

    Structures of Common Amino Acids

    Properties of Purine and Pyrimidine Bases

    The Genetic Code

    Properties of Fatty Acids and Their Methyl Esters

    Composition and Properties of Common Oils and Fats

    Carbohydrate Names and Symbols

    Standard Transformed Gibbs Energies of Formation for Biochemical Reactants

    Apparent Equilibrium Constants for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    Apparent Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Protein-Ligand Binding Reactions

    Thermodynamic Quantities for the Ionization Reactions of Buffers in Water

    Biological Buffers

    Typical pH Values of Biological Materials and Foods

    Properties and Functions of Common Drugs

    Properties of Controlled Substances

    Section 8: Chemical Structure, Bonding, and Molecular Spectroscopy Data


    Structure of Free Molecules in the Gas Phase

    Characteristic Bond Lengths in Free Molecules

    Dipole Moments

    Hindered Internal Rotation

    Bond Dissociation Energies


    Force Constants for Bond Stretching

    Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies of Small Molecules

    Spectroscopic Constants of Diatomic Molecules

    Polarizabilities of Molecules

    Ionization Energies of Gas-Phase Molecules

    Electron Affinities of Molecules

    Part 2 Data for the Practice of Chemistry and Physics

    Section 9: Physical Chemistry Data


    CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics

    Standard Thermodynamic Properties of Chemical Substances

    Thermodynamic Properties as a Function of Temperature

    Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Ions

    Proton Affinities

    Heat of Combustion

    Heat Capacity of Selected Solids

    Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

    Molar Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous HF, HCl, HBr, and HI

    Molar Electrical Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

    Ionic Conductivity and Diffusion at Infinite Dilution

    Electrochemical Series

    Activity Coefficients of Acids, Bases, and Salts

    Mean Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes as a Function of Concentration

    Enthalpy of Dilution of Acids

    Enthalpy of Solution of Electrolytes

    Concentrative Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    Ebullioscopic Constants for Calculation of Boiling Point Elevation

    Cryoscopic Constants for Calculation of Freezing Point Depression

    Freezing Point Lowering by Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

    Azeotropic Data for Binary Mixtures

    Section 10: Environmental Chemistry Data


    Chemical Reaction Rate Constants for Atmospheric Studies

    Properties of Refrigerants

    Global Warming Potential of Greenhouse Gases

    Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, 1958-2022

    Aqueous Solubility and Henry's Law Constants of Organic Compounds

    Properties of Seawater

    Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Seawater

    Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients

    Global Temperature Trend, 1880-2022

    Solar Irradiance at the Earth

    Geographical and Seasonal Variations in Solar Radiation

    Infrared Absorption by the Earth's Atmosphere

    U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976)

    Section 11: Solid-State Chemistry and Physics Data


    Techniques for Materials Characterization

    Symmetry of Crystals

    Ionic Radii in Crystals

    The Madelung Constant and Crystal Lattice Energy

    Elastic Constants of Single Crystals

    Polarizability of Atoms and Ions in Solids

    Electrical Resistivity of Binary Alloys

    Electrical Resistivity of Graphite Materials

    Curie Temperature of Selected Ferroelectric Crystals

    Properties of Antiferroelectric Crystals

    Properties of Superconductors

    High-Temperature Superconductors

    Organic Superconductors

    Properties of Semiconductors

    Selected Properties of Semiconductor Solid Solutions

    Properties of Organic Semiconductors

    Diffusion Data for Semiconductors

    Properties of Magnetic Materials

    Organic Magnets

    Properties of Selected Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Thermoelectric Properties of Metals and Semiconductors

    Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Semiconductors as a Function of Temperature

    Fermi Energy and Related Properties of Metals

    Secondary Electron Emission

    Electron Inelastic Mean Free Paths

    Electron Stopping Powers

    Attenuation Coefficients for High-Energy Electromagnetic Radiation

    Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline Dielectrics

    Thermal Conductivity of Ceramics and Other Insulating Materials

    Section 12: Industrial Chemistry Data


    Thermophysical Properties of Air

    Thermophysical Properties of Fluids

    Thermophysical Properties of Selected Fluids at Saturation

    Vapor Pressure of Compounds and Elements

    Vapor Pressure of Fluids at Temperatures below 300 K

    Vapor Pressure of Saturated Salt Solutions

    Enthalpy of Vaporization

    Enthalpy of Fusion

    Virial Coefficients of Selected Gases

    Compressibility and Expansion Coefficients of Liquids

    Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Liquid Density

    Properties of Cryogenic Fluids

    Properties of Liquid Helium

    Properties of Ionic Liquids

    Energy Content of Fuels

    Surface Tension of Common Liquids

    Surface Tension of Aqueous Mixtures

    Surface Active Chemicals (Surfactants)

    Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Liquids

    Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Gases

    Viscosity of Gases

    Viscosity of Liquids

    Thermal Conductivity of Gases and Refrigerants

    Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

    Influence of Pressure on Freezing Points

    Sublimation Pressure of Solids

    Solubility of Selected Gases in Water

    Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Various Temperatures and Pressures

    Solubility of Organic Compounds in Pressurized Hot Water

    Diffusion in Gases

    Diffusion of Gases in Water

    Diffusion Coefficients in Liquids at Infinite Dilution

    Mean Free Path and Related Properties of Gases

    Index of Refraction of Air

    Index of Refraction of Gases

    Index of Refraction of Liquids for Calibration Purposes

    Section 13: Astrophysics, Earth Sciences, and Physics Data


    Astronomical Constants

    Properties of the Solar System

    Interstellar Molecules

    Mass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the Earth

    Density, Pressure, and Gravity as a Function of Depth within the Earth

    Acceleration Due to Gravity

    Ocean Pressure as a Function of Depth and Latitude

    Summary Tables of Particle Properties

    Blackbody Radiation

    Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Part 3 Data for Modern Chemical Laboratories

    Section 14: Analytical Chemistry Data


    Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Analytical Chemistry

    Basic Instrumental Techniques of Analytical Chemistry

    Analytical Standardization and Calibration

    Figures of Merit

    Mass- and Volume-Based Concentration Units

    Detection of Outliers in Measurements

    Properties of Carrier Gases for Gas Chromatography

    Common Symbols Used in Gas and Liquid Chromatographic Schematic Diagrams

    Standard Fittings for Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Stationary Phases for Porous-Layer Open Tubular Columns

    Coolants for Cryotrapping

    Properties of Common Cross-Linked Silicone Stationary Phases

    Detectors for Gas Chromatography

    Varieties of Hyphenated Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices

    Pressure Drop in Open Tubular Gas Chromatographic Columns

    Phase Ratios for Capillary Columns

    Minimum Recommended Injector Split Ratios for Capillary Columns

    Eluotropic Values of Solvents on Octadecylsilane and Octylsilane

    Solid-Phase Micro-extraction Sorbents

    Instability of HPLC Solvents

    Fluorescence Labeling Reagents Used Pre-Column in HPLC

    Detectors for Liquid Chromatography

    Solvents for Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

    Correlation Table for Ultraviolet Active Functionalities

    Middle-Range Infrared Absorption Correlation Charts

    Common Spurious Infrared Absorption Bands

    Raman Band Frequencies

    Nuclear Spins, Moments, and Other Data Related to NMR Spectroscopy

    Properties of Important NMR Nuclei

    Proton NMR Absorption of Major Chemical Families

    Proton NMR Correlation Chart for Major Organic Functional Groups

    Proton NMR Shifts of Common Organic Liquids

    Proton Chemical Shifts of Contaminants in Deuterated Solvents

    13C-NMR Absorptions of Major Functional Groups

    13C-NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Organic Solvents

    15N-NMR Chemical Shifts of Major Chemical Families

    Natural Abundance of Isotopes Important in Mass Spectrometry

    Common Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Organic Compound Families

    Common Mass Spectral Fragments Lost

    Major Reference Masses in the Spectrum of Heptacosafluorotributylamine (Perfluorotributylamine)

    Mass Spectral Peaks of Common Organic Liquids

    Common Spurious Signals Observed in Mass Spectrometers

    Chlorine-Bromine Combination Isotope Intensities in Mass Spectral Patterns

    Standards for Laboratory Weights

    Reduction of Weighings in Air to Vacuo

    Indicators for Acids and Bases

    Preparation of Special Analytical Reagents

    Organic Analytical Reagents for the Determination of Inorganic Ions

    Section 15: Chemical and Laboratory Safety Data


    Chemical Safety

    Abbreviations Used in the Assessment and Presentation of Laboratory Hazards

    Incompatible Chemicals

    Explosion (Shock) Hazards

    Water-Reactive Chemicals

    Testing Requirements for Peroxidizable Compounds

    Tests for the Presence of Peroxides

    Pyrophoric Compounds - Compounds That Are Reactive with Air

    Flammability of Common Solvents and Other Chemical Substances

    Types and Uses of Fire Extinguishers

    Materials Compatible with and Resistant to 72 Percent Perchloric Acid

    Selection of Laboratory Gloves

    Selection of Protective Laboratory Garments

    Selection of Respirator Cartridges and Filters

    Protective Clothing Levels

    Selection of Hearing Protection Devices

    Chemical Fume Hoods and Biological Safety Cabinets

    Gas Cylinder Safety and Stamped Markings

    Compressed Air Safety

    Safety in the Use of Cryogens

    Plug and Outlet Configurations for Common Laboratory Devices

    Electrical Shock Hazards

    Ladder Safety in Laboratories

    Magnetic Field Safety

    Nanomaterial Safety Guidelines

    Threshold Limits for Airborne Contaminants

    Chemical Carcinogens

    Laser Hazards in the Laboratory

    General Characteristics of Ionizing Radiation for Practical Application of Radiation Protection

    Radiation Safety Units

    Relative Dose Ranges from Ionizing Radiation

    Annual Limits on Intakes of Radionuclides

    Section 16: Practical Laboratory Data


    Laboratory Solvents and Other Liquid Reagents

    Density of Solvents as a Function of Temperature

    pH Scale for Aqueous Solutions

    Buffer Solutions Giving Round Values of pH at 25 °C

    Constant Humidity Solutions

    Standard Salt Solutions for Humidity Calibration

    Low-Temperature Baths for Maintaining Constant Temperature

    Metals and Alloys with Low-Melting Temperature

    Standard KCl Solutions for Calibrating Electrical Conductivity Cells

    Characteristics of Particles and Particle Dispersoids

    International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)

    Reference Points on the ITS-90 Temperature Scale

    Standard ITS-90 Thermocouple Tables

    Part 4 Reference Tables and Indices

    Section 17: Units, Constants, and Conversion Factors

    CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2018

    International System of Units (SI)

    Expression of Uncertainty of Measurements

    Descriptive Terms for Solubility

    Units for Magnetic Properties

    Conversion Factors for Energy Units

    Conversion Factors for Pressure Units

    Units of Measure for Vacuum Systems

    Values of the Gas Constant in Different Unit Systems

    Conversion Factors for Thermal Conductivity Units

    Section 18: Nomenclature, Terminology, and Symbols

    Nomenclature for Chemical Compounds

    Representation of Chemical Structures with the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI)

    Definition of Ambient

    Symbols and Terminology for Physical and Chemical Quantities

    Scientific Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols

    Thermodynamic Functions and Relations

    Section 19: Covers and Indices

    Periodic Table of the Elements

    Standard Atomic Weights in Atomic Order Number

    Fundamental Physical Constants - Frequently Used Constants


    Dr. John Rumble has long been a leader in developing and providing access to databases in numerous S&T disciplines. From 1980 through 2004, he worked in the NIST Standard Reference Data Program and later was responsible for NIST measurement services programs. From 2004 to 2011, He was Executive Vice President of Information International Associates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Today he is President of R&R Data Services in Gaithersburg MD.

    Rumble has served on numerous national and international STI policy committees and review panels and was a member of the Board on International Scientific Organizations of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Dr. Rumble was among the first to build online, PC, and Internet/web-based factual databases for scientific and technical (S&T) data. While at NIST, he sponsored data projects with scientists in China, Japan, England, France, Germany, and Russia. During that time, he also worked with many industry organizations and professional societies to develop industry-related data programs in materials science and chemistry, as well as standards for S&T data exchange.

    Dr. Rumble has considerable experience in chemistry, physics, materials science, nanomaterials, and informatics and data science experience and has published widely in all these areas. Rumble received a Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from Indiana University.

    In 1998-2002, Rumble served as President of CODATA, the ICSU Committee on Data for Science and Technology. Dr. Rumble is Fellow of IUPAC, AAAS, APS, ASTM International, ASM International, and IAFoST, as well as a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Metrology. He was awarded the CODATA 2006 Prize for outstanding achievements in S&T data. He has served two terms as Editor-in-Chief of the CODATA Data Science Journal.

    During the last five years, Dr. Rumble has led a multi-disciplinary effort to develop a uniform system for describing nanomaterials. This work has been done under the auspices of CODATA International and the International Council for Science. Rumble has put together a unique group of international union representatives from the diverse scientific and technical fields interested in nanotechnology, including chemistry, physics, materials science, food science and technology, nutrition science, toxicology, and more. In addition, he has reached out to more general audiences in these fields through international workshops, symposia at union conferences, and liaisons with U.S. and European Nanosafety projects. This work is available at www.codata.org/nanomaterials