1st Edition

Canines The Original Biosensors

Edited By Lauryn E. DeGreeff, Craig A. Schultz Copyright 2022
    814 Pages 11 Color & 98 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    814 Pages 11 Color & 98 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    Detection canines have been utilized throughout the world for over a century, and while numerous attempts have been made to replicate the canine’s ability to detect substances by mechanical means, none has been as successful. The olfactory system is a highly intricate and sophisticated design for chemical sensing, and the olfactory capacity of many animals, including canines, is considered unmatched by machine due to not only their great sensitivity and superior selectivity but also their trainability and mobility. These unique features have led to the use of such animals as "whole-animal" biosensors.

    Amplifying the benefits and diminishing the limitations of detection canines' interdisciplinary research is crucial to understanding canine olfaction and detection and enhancing this powerful and complex detector. The past 50 years have produced vast advancements in animal behavior/training technology to develop canines into more proficient and reliable sensors, while scientific research has provided tremendous support to help practitioners better understand how to utilize this powerful sensor. This book assembles a diverse group of authors with expertise in a variety of fields relating to detection canines and the chemical sensing industry, including both research and operational perspectives on detection canines. It illustrates how science enhances our understanding of how canines are employed for solving some of the world’s leading detection challenges.

    Section 1: A Dog’s World: Chemical Sensing through Olfaction 
    1. Introduction: Canine, the Original Biosensor 
    Lauryn E. DeGreeff 
    2. Comparing the Olfactory Capabilities of Dogs with Machines Designed to Detect Odors   
    Kenneth G. Furton and David Winialski 
    3. Sensitivity and Selectivity in Canine Detectors   
    Lauryn E. DeGreeff, Melissa Singletary, and Lucia Lazarowski 
    4. Chemical Information in Olfactory and Sensor Array Systems   
    Kevin J. Johnson and Adam C. Knapp 
    5. Insect Olfaction in Chemical Sensing 
    Debajit Saha  
    Section 2: Understanding the Canine Biosensor: Fundamentals 
    6. Neurobiological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Bases of Canine Olfactory Capabilities in Detection   
    Melissa Singletary and Lucia Lazarowski 
    7. Understanding the Dynamics of Odor to Aid in Odor Detection   
    Lauryn E. DeGreeff and Michele Maughan 
    8. Towards the Development of a Human Scent Model 
    Brian Eckenrode, Paige Riley, Allyson Dailey, and Robin Couch 
    9. How Science Supports and Law Influences Forensic Canine Utilization in the United States: Considerations for Human Scent Evidence (Trailing) and Human Remains Detection Canines   
    Craig Schultz, Jan J. Topoleski, Brian Eckenrode, Christopher Tipple, Wynn G. Warren, and Mark Rispoli  
    Section 3: Fostering an Effective Sensor: Training and Evaluation 
    10. Training the Sensor: Impacts of Learning on Canine Detection and Performance 
    Edgar O. Aviles-Rosa, Mallory T. DeChant, and Nathaniel J. Hall 
    11. Training Considerations for Operational Performance: Train the Handler, Train the Dog, Train the Team   
    Bradley Gillespie 
    12. When Does Handler Perception Become Canine Detection? How Applied Behavior Analysis and Ethology Can Improve Handler Interpretation of Canine Behavior 
    Ann Waterbury and Craig A. Schultz 
    13. Considerations for Testing the Capability of Operational Detection Dogs   
    Fay Porritt, Nina Cracknell, Victoria Ratcliffe, Kevin Elliker, Bethany Hutchings, Lorna Irish, Ella Birch, Hannah Robbins, Natasha D’Souza, Edward Croft, Emma Hobbs, and Nicola Sibbald 
    14. Considerations in Vapor Generation and Delivery for Canine Testing and Training  
    Matthew Mullen and Braden C. Giordano  
    Section 4: The Canine Biosensor in Practice 
    15. Dogs as Detectors for Hidden Digital Storage Devices: A Pilot Study from the National Police of The Netherlands   
    Stèphan J. Petersen and Adee Schoon 
    16. The Use of Dogs for the Detection of Human Remains 
    Lorna Irish and Natasha Dilkie 
    17. Canine Detection of Blood Evidence 
    LaTara Rust, Katie D. Nizio, and Shari L. Forbes 
    18. Using Trained Dogs in Rape and Assault Cases   
    Adee Schoon, Annemieke van Dam, and Dick Staal 
    19. Role of Dogs in Detection of Human Diseases   
    Adee Schoon, Patrick Hilverink, Danielle de Jonge, and Rune Fjellanger 
    20. Canine Detection Teams to Support Oil Spill Response Surveys 
    Edward H. Owens and Paul C. Bunker 
    21. Broader Perspectives: Case Studies of Detection Canines in the Field 
    Lauryn E. DeGreeff 


    Lauryn E. DeGreeff earned her PhD in forensic chemistry from Florida International University (FIU), USA, where she is presently a professor in the Chemistry Department and the International Forensic Science Research Institute. Prior to returning to FIU, she conducted her research as part of the Chemistry Division at the US Naval Research Laboratory in Washington DC. Dr. DeGreeff takes a chemistry-based approach to studying olfaction for the purpose of informing field vapor sampling practices. Her research focuses on trace vapor sampling, characterization, and generation in support of canine and other field detection approaches. Dr. DeGreeff regularly lectures on the dynamics of odor for the operational community.

    Craig A. Schultz has 30 years of experience in animal behavior with organizations such as Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Palm Beach Zoo, Jacksonville Zoo, the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Detector Dog Training Center, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. He has been a guest lecturer at several universities in addition to presenting at exotic animal, veterinary behavior, and working dog national conferences. He has also served as an active member of the Scientific Working Group on Dog and Orthogonal Detector Guidelines (SWGDOG) and the National Institute for Standards and Technology’s Organization of Scientific Area Committee (OSAC) Dogs and Sensors Subcommittee.