Historians of economic thought traditionally summarize, critique, and trace the development of existing theory. History of thought literature provides information about the authors, chronology, and relative importance of influential works. Generally missing from the literature, however, are answers to questions about why economic theory exists in its current form: Why have economists chosen the theories they have to represent the discipline's formal content? What are the criteria that determine the value of a theory, or of research in general; and, how have these criteria changed over time? In this insightful and well-written work, Christopher Mackie analyzes how ideas and theories are accepted in economics, from the pre-publication phase to the point at which, once written, a theory enters the accepted body of professional literature. Drawing from economics, the history of science, and philosophy, Mackie shows how both empirical and non-empirical criteria determine how theory will actually evolve.
9/11 revealed serious public sector shortcomings in such areas as border security and immigration control, cybersecurity, and first responses to hostile acts. This book focuses on how to make government more effective, especially in our post-9/11 era of heightened concern for national and homeland security. "Meeting the Challenge of 9/11" is a top-to-bottom guidebook for improving government organization and performance. While it specifically addresses the key issues of homeland security (biodefense, border security, immigration control, and infrastructure protection), it has a broader agenda - the renewal of an effective, well-managed government. The chapter authors have extensive senior-level experience in managing government organizations or in analyzing government organization and management. Most are Fellows of the National Academy of Public Administration and active participants in NAPA's Standing Panel on Executive Organization and Management.