Ranging across space and time, this book brings together up-to-date research on the socio-cultural phenomenon of caravans. It shows that caravans for long-distance trade in arid lands are present in both the Old and New Worlds. Alongside historical and archival records, ethnographic analyses of modern caravans provide theoretical frameworks for reconstructing aspects of ancient caravans such as behaviour, ritual and material culture. The volume reflects on the changing foci of caravan research and the future of caravans, when memories of living caravaners are fading, and the fragile and remote nature of caravan-related sites means that they are at risk. It will be relevant to scholars from anthropology, archaeology and history and others with an interest in trade, travel and nomadism.
Table of Contents
Persis B. Clarkson and Calogero M. Santoro
Prologue by Anthony F. Aveni
1. ¡Cabros Viene Barco! (Holy smokes, guys, there’s a boat!)
2. Times of Change: Young People in the Future of Llama Caravans in Santa Catalina, Jujuy, Argentina
3. Rest Areas and Long-Distance Caravans: Ethnoarchaeological Notes from the Southern Andes
Axel E. Nielsen
4. Salt Routes and Barter Caravans in the Regions of Nepal and Tibetan Himalaya in an Ethnographical Perspective
5. Crisscrossing the Peruvian Central Highlands and Beyond
Lidio M. Valdez, Katrina J. Bettchter, and J. Ernesto Valdez
6. Reflection on the History of the Study of Transhumance, Culture Change, Trails, and Roads in the South-Central Andes
Thomas F. Lynch
7. Caravan Roads in the Upper Egyptian Deserts
John Coleman Darnell
8. Llama Caravans in Late Prehistoric Nazca
9. Camelid Caravans and Middle Horizon Exchange Networks: Insights from the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley of Northern Peru.
Aleksa K. Alaica, Luis Manuel González La Rosa, Luis A. Muro Ynoñán, Gwyneth Gordon, Kelly J. Knudson
10. Donkeys, Camels, and the Logistics of Ancient Caravan Transport: Animal Performance and Archaeological Evidence from the Egyptian Sahara
Heiko Riemer and Frank Förster
11. Camelids As Cargo Animals By the Paracas Culture (800–200 BC) In the Palpa Valleys of Southern Peru.
Christian Mader, Markus Reindel, and Johny Isla
12. The Politics of Connection: Caravans and Political Development in the Southern Lake Titicaca Basin, Bolivia.
Scott C. Smith, Maribel Pérez Arias, and Adolfo E. Pérez Arias
13. Intersite Locations of Prehistoric Caravan Traffic in the Core of the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile
Lautaro Núñez and Luis Briones
14. Caravan Trails in the Highlands of Northwestern Argentina
Persis B. Clarkson’s archaeological research spans the western deserts of the Americas, the tropical forests of Mesoamerica, and the boreal forests of Canada. She teaches anthropology at the University of Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada, and is a temporary but keenly observant inhabitant of the Atacama Desert.
Calogero M. Santoro is based at the Instituto de Alta Investigación at the Universidad de Tarapacá in Arica, Chile, where multidisciplinary research ranges through socialcultural changes and climate variability from the Pleistocene to the present in hyperarid environments.