1st Edition

Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Sustainable and Technological Applications

By Loutfy H. Madkour Copyright 2025
    400 Pages 224 Color & 33 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Sustainable and Technological Applications covers the fundamentals of Carbon-based Nanomaterials (CNMs) and their potential for technological and industrial applications. Addressing recent advancements in technology and improvement in material synthesis, the book outlines how functionalized CNMs are used in nanobiotechnology, for active sorbent materials, and in pharmaceutical applications. Chapters cover macro-scale applications, biosensors and drug delivery and treatment in cancer and coronavirus diseases.

    Key features:

    • Through up-to-date references, demonstrates that carbon-based Nanomaterials are one of the most promising nanomaterials in both medical as drug and gene delivery carriers and in nonmedical environmental applications.
    • Discusses the synthesis methods of processing (CQDs), (GQDs), (CPDs) and (g-C3N4) materials-based nanocomposites for biotechnological applications.
    • Chapters address various classes of carbon nanomaterials and their innovative technologies.
    • Opens up further exploration of environmental nanotechnology, bio-nanotechnology and biomedical applications of novel carbon nanomaterials.

    Written by a leading expert, this volume provides the reader with thorough coverage of bio-nanotechnology and biomedical applications of novel carbon nanomaterials.

    1. Comprehensive Study of Carbon Nanomaterials–Based Nanostructured Materials: Potential for Technological and Industrial Applications

    1.1. Background of Carbon –Based Nanostructured Materials      

    1.2. History of Carbon Nanotube Composites       

    1.3. Characterization of CNTs

    1.4. Classification of Categories Carbon Nanotubes Types and their Properties        

    1.5. Different Allotropes of Carbon Related to Devices

    1.6. Basic Structure and Morphology features of CNTs

    1.7. Production and workplace exposure to CNTS

    1.8. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

    1.9. Growth mechanism of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)       

    1.10. Methods of Purification and Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes

    1.11. Limitations and modification (functionalization)         

    1.12. Drug loading mechanism and cellular uptake of CNT’s

    1.13. Uptake OF CNT’s BY cell

    1.14. Breakdown mechanism of CNTs in the body

    1.15. Toxicity OF CNT’s

    1.16. Different Impressive Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    1.17. Advantage and Disadvantage of Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)           

    1.18. Administration of Carbon Nanotubes

    1.19. Examples of Medical andTherapeutics Applications for Carbon nanotubes         

    1.20. Applications of graphene         

    1.21. Conclusions

    2. Progression in Synthesis Processing and Growth Mechanism of Carbon Nanomaterials for Advanced Macro—Scale Applications 

    2.1. Production and Main Processing Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes

    2.2. Electric Arc Discharge Method

    2.3. Laser Ablation Method

    2.4. Purification of CNTs

    2.5. Chemical Vapor—Phase Growth Production Deposition Method (CVD)

    2.6. Vapor– phase growth production method

    2.7. Other emerging methods

    2.8. Experimental Reproducibility

    2.9. In Situ Growth Deposition of CNTs and 2D Material Synthesis on Fibers

    2.10. Substrate-Bound SWCNT Synthesis

    2.11. Vertically Aligned SWCNTs

    2.12. Recent Advances in Synthesis of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) Growth

    2.13. Influence of Precursor Gas Chemistry

    2.14. Recent trends in the synthesis of CNTs

    2.15. Methods of Carbon Nanotube Based Fibers Production

    2.16. Nanostructured Energy Materials in Fibers

    2.17. Processing and Applications of Novel Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)

    2.18. Synthesis of Fullerenes

    2.19. Methods of Graphene Preparation

    2.20. Synthesis and Tuning Strategies of GQDs

    2.21. Regulation Properties of GQDs

    3. Bio—nanotechnological Applications of Fullerene (C60)—Based Modified Development Imaging and Biosensing Devices

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Fullerenes, their Properties and Production

    3.3. Synthesis Methods of C60 fullerene

    3.4. Functionalization of Fullerene

    3.5. Toxicity and biocompatibility evaluation of fullerenes

    3.6. Types of Fullerenes and their specific uses (C60, C70, Fullerenols)

    3.7. Uses of Fullerene

    3.8. Fullerene in Biomedical Applications and Its Role in Drug Delivery

    3.9. Other biomedical applications

    3.10. Applications of Fullerenes in Biosensors

    3.11. Modification of Electrodes with Fullerenes

    3.12. Fullerene - based modified sensors and biosensors

    3.13. Fullerene–based Polymers

    3.14. Conclusions and Future Prospective

    4. Computational Simulation Optimization and Pharmaceutical Role of CNTs—Based Development New Target Drug Delivery Systems (DDSs) for Enhance Efficacy Anticancer Therapy

    4.1. (CNTs) on Molecular Dynamics Simulation —Based Development New Drug Delivery Systems

    4.2. Structural properties and functionalization of CNTs

    4.3. Interactions of carbon nanotubes with the cell membrane

    4.4. Molecular dynamics simulation of CNT–cell-membrane interactions          

    4.5. Computational aspects of solvent and co-solvent effects on the interaction of Flutamide as anticancer drug delivery system with CNT

    4.6. DFT interaction of Flutamide drug with COOH and COCl functionalized CNTs

    4.7. Molecular dynamics simulation study of the functionalized CNTs for enhance the efficacy of the anticancer drug paclitaxel

    4.8. Computational simulation study of CNT as a carrier in drug delivery system for carnosine dipeptide

    4.9. Computational study of leflunomide on the SWCNT and SWBNNT

    4.10. Concluding remarks

    5. Cutting—Edge Nano-Biotechnology in Advanced Drug Delivery Nanosystems for (CNTs), Fullerenes, (NDs) and Graphene—Based Materials    

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Carbon Nanotubes-based Drug Delivery         

    5.3. Graphene/Graphene Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide         

    5.4. Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs)

    5.5. Fullerenes Composition

    5.6. Nanodiamonds (NDs) —Based Drug Delivery

    5.7. Carbon Nano-Onions (CNOs)—Based Drug Delivery

    5.8. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) —Based Advanced Dermal Therapeutics          

    5.9. Toxicity Concerns for Carbon-Based Nanomaterials

    5.10. Computational Investigations of Fixed-Free and Fixed-Fixed Types SWCNT Mass Sensing Biosensor

    5.11. Conclusions

    5.12. Future Perspectives

    6. Bright Future of Carbon Nanomaterials for Cancer Nanomedicine —Based Enzyme Immobilization Conjugates

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Nanozymes to CNM-Enzyme Conjugates

    6.3. CNMs for Enzyme Mimicry, Inhibition, or Monitoring

    6.4. Applications of CNM-Enzyme Conjugates

    6.5. Enzymatic Biodegradation of CNMs

    6.6. CNT based high-κ dielectric Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Based Cholesterol Biosensor

    6.7. Bright future of Carbon dots for cancer nanomedicine          

    6.8. Bright Future in the Fabrication of Portable Kits in Analytical Systems

    6.9. Conclusions and Future Perspectives

    7. CNMs—Based Developed Biosensors for Rapid Technologies Detection Antiviral Infection and Management Coronavirus Biomarkers

    7.1. Background

    7.2. Viral infection and nanomaterials

    7.3. Graphene oxide-based fluorescent nanosensor to identify antiviral agents via a drug repurposing screen

    7.4. Carbon nanomaterial, and its derivatives as nanobiosensors versus COVID-19

    7.5. Smart nanomaterials for biosensing technologies and their consequences

    7.6. Strategies to Enhance the Biosensor Performance          

    7.7. Emerging nanomaterials-based biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 detection

    7.8. Carbon nanotubes in protection and biosensing applications

    7.9. Carbon –based nanomaterials for the management of virus

    7.10. Rapid and label-free detection of H5N1 virus using carbon nanotube network field effect transistor

    7.11. How the Coronavirus Infects Our Cells?

    7.12. Life Cycle of the Pandemic Coronavirus

    7.13. Latest Developed Biosensors for COVID-19

    7.14. (CNT-FET)-based biosensor for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

    7.15. Functional Carbon Quantum Dots as Medical Countermeasures to Human Coronavirus

    7.16. 3D-printed graphene polylactic acid devices resistant to SARS-CoV-2

    7.17. Conclusion and Perspective

    8. Insights on Carbon—Based Nanomaterials as Smart Nanosystems Platform for Cancer Theranostics Sustainable Technology

    8.1. Background

    8.2. Functionalization Methods of carbon nanotubes         

    8.3. Tumor microenvironment (TME) and opportunities

    8.4. Carbon nanotubes for tumor microenvironment targeting

    8.5. Stimuli responsive intelligent nanomaterial in cancer theranostics

    8.6. Progress of Smart Nanoparticles Based Theranostics

    8.7. Physical and chemical properties responsive nanomaterials

    8.8. Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    8.9. Classification of Nanomaterials       

    8.10. Recent Trends of Nanomaterials in Cancer Theranostics           

    8.11. Carbon nanotubes in cancer treatment

    8.12. Carbon nanotubes in cancer diagnosis

     8.13. CNTs in cancer imaging

    8.14. CNTs in nanobiosensors

    8.15. Multi-responsive intelligent nanomaterials

    8.16. Toxicological effects of nanomaterials

    8.17. Current Technological Challenges and Limitations of Effective Theranostics

    8.18. Global Opportunities of Smart Nanomaterials in Next Generation Cancer Theranostics

    8.19. Advantages, challenges, and outlooks of nanomaterials

    8.20. Conclusions and future prospect

    List of abbreviations




    Prof. Loutfy H. Madkour is a Professor of Physical chemistry, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt.