This book focuses on issues related to a suite of technologies known as “Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS),” which can be used to capture and store underground large amounts of industrial CO2 emissions. It addresses how CCS should work, as well as where, why, and how these technologies should be deployed, emphasizing the gaps to be filled in terms of research and development, technology, regulations, economics, and public acceptance.
The book is divided into three parts. The first part helps clarify the global context in which greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be analyzed, highlights the importance of fossil-fuel producing and consuming nations in positively driving clean fossil-fuel usage, and discusses the applicability of this technology on a global and regional level in a timely yet responsible manner. The second part provides a comprehensive overview of present and future technologies for the three elements of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport, and geological storage. The third part addresses the key drivers for CCS deployment worldwide. It provides analysis and assessment of the economic, regulatory, social, and environmental aspects associated with CCS development and deployment on a global scale. It offers a somewhat different perspective on CCS deployment by highlighting the environmental and socio-economic costs and benefits of CCS solutions compared to alternatives.
The book concludes with potential options and guidelines for sustainable and responsible CCS scale-up as a way to address prevailing global energy, environment, and climate concerns.
Table of Contents
PART I: WHY CCS?
1 CCS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT
1.1 CLIMATE CHANGE IN A WORLD DOMINATED BY FOSSIL FUEL
1.2 FOSSIL FUELS AND CO2 IN THE NEXT DECADES 2010 – 2050
1.3 THE ROLE OF CCS AS A GHG MITIGATION SOLUTION
1.4 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 1
2 CCS DEPLOYMENT STATUS, REGIONAL APPLICABILITY, AND STAKEHOLDERS
2.1 CCS DEPLOYMENT: STATUS AND FORECAST
2.2 ONE SOLUTION WILL NOT FIT ALL: REGIONAL APPLICABILITY OF CCS
2.3 REGIONAL UPDATE: CCS STATUS & STAKEHOLDERS ORGANIZATIONS
2.4 CCS IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES FOR THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
2.5 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 2
PART II: TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERABILITY OF THE CCS CHAIN
3 CO2 CAPTURE AND SEPARATION
3.1 DESCRIPTION OF CO2 EMITTING PROCESSES
3.2 CAPTURE AND SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES
3.3 CAPTURE OF CO2 TODAY
3.4 COMBUSTION PROCESSES THAT SIMPLIFY CO2 SEPARATION
3.5 OVERALL CHALLENGES FOR CO2 CAPTURE, ANTICIPATED DEPLOYMENT
3.6 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 3
4 CO2 TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
4.1 TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGIES REVIEW
4.2 TOWARDS INFRASTRUCTURE DEPLOYMENT
4.3 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 4
5 CO2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE
5.1 UNDERGROUND STORAGE SOLUTIONS
5.2 CARBON DIOXIDE TRAPPING MECHANISMS
5.3 UNDERGROUND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
5.4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT DESIGN
5.5 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 5
PART III: DEPLOYMENT DRIVERS
6 CCS REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
6.1 EMISSIONS MITIGATION POLICIES
6.2 CCS REGULATIONS
6.3 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 6
7 ECONOMICS OF THE CCS CHAIN
7.1 OBTAINING AN ADEQUATE PRICE FOR CO2
7.2 COST OF THE CCS CHAIN
7.3 CCS ECONOMY
7.4 CCS PROJECTS FINANCING
7.5 WHEN TO MOVE TO CCS?
7.6 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 7
8 CCS QUALITY STANDARDS – CHALLENGES TO COMMERCIALIZATION
8.1 SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL STANDPOINTS TO CCS
8.3 MULTI-STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT, PROJECT QUALITY STANDARDS, AND RISK MITIGATION/COMMUNICATION
8.4 KEY MESSAGES FROM CHAPTER 8
9 CONCLUSION: A PRAGMATIC WAY FORWARD
9.1 CCS DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY: CONNECTING THE DOTS
9.2 CCS: AN ELEMENT OF FUTURE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES
Saud M. Al-Fattah is Director of Global Energy Markets and Economics Research at the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center. Saud has more than 25 years of experience with Saudi Aramco working in several petroleum engineering departments including reservoir management, oil and gas reserves assessment and fields’ development studies, reservoir simulation and reservoir engineering systems. His areas of specialty include: reservoir management, energy markets and economics, artificial intelligence, and strategic management.
Saud has a U.S. patent, published several technical papers in peer-reviewed journals, and authored and co-authored three books: "Innovative Methods for Analyzing and Forecasting World Gas Supply," "Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining Applications in the E&P Industry," and "Carbon Capture and Storage: Technologies, Policies, Economics, and Implementation Strategies". He is an active member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE), and the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers (EAGE). He is also a member of the SPE Artificial Intelligence & Petroleum Analytics Subcommittee.
Saud is a technical editor for the SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering Journal, Natural Gas Science and Engineering Journal, and several other industry publications. He held the positions of vice chairman of the 2006 SPE Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium, and chairman of the 2007 SPE Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium.
He earned his Ph.D. with distinction from Texas A&M University, and M.S. and B.S. degrees with honors from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), all in petroleum engineering.
Murad Barghouty is Director of Energy and Environmental Technology Research at the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC). He has 24 years of experience in Saudi Aramco encompassing assignments in reservoir management, reservoir simulation, reservoir characterization, and production operations.
Murad graduated in 1987 from Marietta College, Ohio, U.S., with a B.S. in Petroleum Engineering.
Bashir Dabbousi is the Interim Vice President of Research at the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC). Prior to joining KAPSARC, he was Coordinator of the R&D Division in the Research & Development Center, where he spent most of his career with Saudi Aramco.
He has coauthored 10 U.S. patents, 3 U.S. patent applications and 25 publications in peer reviewed technical journals in the research areas of nanostructured light emitting materials (5 patents licensed to two U.S. companies), liquid petroleum fuels, crude and products desulfurization and oil to hydrogen. During 2005-2006, he was an Academic Visitor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology at Imperial College London.
Bashir received a B.S. degree in Chemistry summa cum laude from the University of California, Berkeley and a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He also completed the Advanced Management and Leadership Program at Oxford University, Saïd Business School.