With an abundance of illustrations and tables to highlight critical information, this source provides a practical approach to the use of CO2 as a contrast agent for diagnostic angiography, vascular intervention, and other interventional procedures in both adults and pediatrics. Clearly laying-out key points in the science, technique, and clinical applications of this procedure, this source will be a constant companion for physicians treating various disorders affecting arterial and venous circulation.
Table of Contents
Overview of CO2 as a Contrast Agent. Physical Properties and Flow Dynamics of CO2. CO2 as a Venous Contrast Agent: Safety and Tolerance. Monitoring Patients Undergoing CO2 Angiography. Aortogram and Runoff. Visceral CO2 DSA. CO2 Renal DSA. CO2 DSA for Renal Transplant Patients. CO2 DSA of Tumors. CO2 for Traumatic Bleeding. CO2 for Gastrointestinal Bleeding. Carbon Dioxide for Use in Iliac Lower Extremity Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stent Placement. CO2 Renal PTA and Stent Placement. CO2 Upper Extremity Venography. CO2 for Wedged Hepatic Venography. CO2 Splenoportography. CO2 with Large-Needle TIPS. CO2 Fine-Needle TIPS. Aneurysms, Arteriovenous Malformations and Arteriovenous Fistula. CO2 Inferior Vena Cavography. CO2 with Venous Interventions. CO2 Guided Percutaneous Nephrostomies including the Blunt Needle Technique. CO2 Plastic Bag Delivery System. Potential Complications and Their Prevention.