Carbon Fibers and Their Composites: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Carbon Fibers and Their Composites

1st Edition

By Peter Morgan

CRC Press

1,200 pages | 993 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2005-05-20
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Description

Most literature pertaining to carbon fibers is of a theoretical nature. Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers a comprehensive look at the specific manufacturing of carbon fibers and graphite fibers into the growing surge of diverse applications that include flameproof materials, protective coatings, biomedical and prosthetics applications, textiles, batteries and fuel cells, automotive applications, construction, and even musical instruments.

This useful guide provides a hands-on approach to the fabrication of carbon fibers. The book begins with a blueprint of the international history and development of carbon fiber, clearly defined terminology for all forms of solid carbon products, and the properties for elemental carbon and its allotropic forms. It then elaborates upon precursor materials, relevant surface treatment, and sizing for each carbon fiber type available in the world market. Several chapters also examine the types of matrices, their properties, and fracture mechanics of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, carbon, glass, metal, and ceramics matrices.

Carbon Fibers and their Composites reveals straightforward guidelines for the day-to-day operations of a carbon fiber plant, such as safety testing, quality control, design of equipment, packaging, air flow/dust control, maintenance, and environmental policies. Based on over 30 years of experience in the field, the author offers insight and possible solutions to the problems associated with production and testing of carbon fibers and their related composites. He details the use of analytical chemistry techniques, instrumentation requirements, and statistics to evaluate the results.

Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers an excellent clarification of how carbon fibers yield reinforced composites, their physical and chemical characteristics, the diverse manufacturing techniques for each type, and the advantages they offer to a variety of applications.

Table of Contents

PREFACE

Introduction

Recommended terminology for the Description of carbon as a Solid

A Bibliography of Books on Carbon Fibers and Their Composites

Acknowledgements

STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON ATOM

Introduction – The Element Carbon, Its Isotopes and Allotropes

Structure of Carbon

THE FORMS OF CARBON

The Allotropes of Carbon

The Carbon Phase Diagram

Diamond

Graphite

Pyrolytic Carbon and Pyrolytic Graphite

Glass-like Carbon

Carbon Fibers

Graphite Whiskers

Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers (VGCF) and Catalytic Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CCVD) Filaments

Other Forms of Carbon

New Forms of Carbon

Summary of Allotropic Forms of Carbon

HISTORY AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON FIBERS

The Early Inventors

Work in the USA

Work in Japan

Work in the UK with PAN Precursors

Early UK Prepreggers

PRECURSORS FOR CARBON FIBER MANUFACTURE

Introduction

PAN Precursors

Cellulosic Precursors

Pitch Precursors

Other Precursors

CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A PAN PRECURSOR

Introduction

Carbon Fiber Manufacturers

World Supply of PAN-based Carbon Fiber

Manufacturing Costs of PAN-based Carbon Fiber

Choice of Precursor

Desirable Attributes of a PAN-based Precursor Polymer and its Subsequent Production

Types of PAN–based Carbon Fiber

A Carbon Fiber Production Line

CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A CELLULOSIC BASED PRECURSOR

Introduction

Current Production

Mechanisms for the Pyrolysis and Carbonization Stages of PAN Carbon Fibers

CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A PITCH BASED PRECURSOR

Introduction

Choice of Melt Spun Precursor

The Manufacturing Process

The Structural Ordering and Morphology of Mesophase Pitch Fibers

PRODUCTION OF VAPOR GROWN CARBON FIBERS (VGCF)

Introduction

Preparation of VGCF

Growth Process

Mode of Tensile Failure

Mechanical Properties

SURFACE TREATMENT AND SIZING OF CARBON FIBERS

Introduction

Oxidative Processes

Plasma

Non-oxidative Surface Treatment – Whiskerization

Effect of Surface treatment Upon the Fiber Properties

Coupling Agents

Sizing Carbon Fiber

GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT FOR CARBON FIBER PLANT

Introduction

Precursor Handling

Drive Systems

Ovens for Oxidation

Removal of Effluent Gases Evolved in the Oxidation Process

Application of an Antistatic Finish

Plaiter Table

LT Carbonization Furnace

LT Furnace Exhaust Removal

HT Carbonization Furnace

Typical Calculations for the Design of an HT Furnace

Sodium Removal

HM Heat Treatment Furnace

Surface Treatment

Sizing

Drying

On-Line Collection

Off-line Winding

Packaging

Exhaust System

Dust Extraction

Application of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)

OPERATION OF CARBON FIBER PLANT AND SAFETY ASPECTS

Introduction

Serendipity

Maintenance

Protecting Electrical Equipment

Air Flow Measurement

Collimation and Spreading of Oxidized and Carbonized Fiber

Splicing Small Tows

Drive Systems and Rotating Rollers

Precursor Creel

Oxidation Plant

Pyrolysis Plant

Low Temperature Carbonization Furnace

High Temperature Carbonization Furnace

High Modulus Furnace

Surface Treatment

Sizing

Winding

Dealing with Emissions

Treatment of Cyanide Effluent

Protecting the Environment

Safety Committee

COSH-H Requirements

Toxicology of Carbon Fibers

The Risks of Carbon Fiber Composites in a Fire

TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE OF CARBON FIBERS

Introduction

Optical Microscope

Scanning Electron Microscope

Transmission Electron Microscope

X-Ray Diffraction

Auger Electron Spectroscopy

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy

Infrared Spectroscopy

Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

Raman Spectroscopy

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

Atomic Foce Microscopy or Scanning Force Microscopy

POLYMER MATRICES FOR CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES

Selected Thermoset resins

Selected Thermoplastic Resins

Improving the Bond with Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastics

CARBON FIBER CARBON MATRIX COMPOSITES

Introduction

Selection of Materials for Carbon-Carbon Processing

Methods of Processing Carbon-Carbon Matrix Materials

Some Thoughts of Carbon-Carbon Processng

Provision for Providing Oxidation Protection

CARBON FIBER REINFORCED CERAMIC MATRICES

Introduction

Cement, Concrete, and Gypsum Matrices

Glass Matrices

Ceramic Matrices

CARBON FIBERS IN METAL MATRICES

Introduction

Metal Matrix Composites

Carbon Fiber for Reinforcement of Metal Matrices

Coating Processes to Improve Wettability

Metal Matrices

Techniques for Fabricating Carbon Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

TESTING PAN PRECURSOR, VIRGIN CARBON FIBERS, CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES AND RELATED PRODUCTS     

Introduction

PAN Precursor testing

Testing Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF) and Virgin Carbon Fiber

Carbon Fiber Tow Testing

Carbon Fiber Yarn and Fabric Testing

Matrix Testing

Carbon Fiber Prepreg Testing

Carbon Fiber Composite Testing

Testing Carbon Fiber Filled Thermoplastics

Instrumental Analysis

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)

Supplement

STATISTICS AND STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)

Frequency Distribution

Location of Data

Measures of Dispersion

Standard Error

Sample Correlation Coefficient

Linear Regression

Normal Distribution

Weibull Distribution

Variation

Control Chart Methods

Statistical Process Control Charts

Capability Index

Failure Mode Effect Analysis

QUALITY CONTROL

In-house testing

Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards

The ISO 9000 Family of Standards and Quality Systems

Quality Gurus

Quality Circles

Total Quality Management

Quality Costing

PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBERS

The Role of Carbon Fibers

Types of Carbon Fibers Available on the World Market

Tensile Properties

Factors Affecting Composite Strength

The Importance of Critical Aspect Ratio

Elastic Constants

Flexural Properties

Effect of surface treatment and Sizing on Composite Properties

Compressional Properties

Thermal Properties

Thermal Expansion of Carbon Fibers

Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fibers

Creep Properties

Impact Strength and Fracture Toughness

Fatigued Properties

Electrical Properties

Chemical Resistance

Friction and Wear

Hybrid Composites

Some Selected Properties of Composites

MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES FOR CARBON FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES IN THERMOSET AND THERMOPLASTIC MATRICES

Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and Architecture

Core Materials

Manufacturing Processes for Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices

Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices

Hybrid Composites

DESIGN

Design Considerations

Micromechanics

Selection of Materials

Elastic Behavior of Multidirectional Laminates

Choice of Composite Manufacturing Method

Bonding and Joining

Fabrication

Testing and Inspection

Smart Devices

Design Cases

THE USES OF CARBON FIBERS

Uses of Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF)

Uses of Virgin Carbon Fiber

Electrical Applications

Thermal Insulation

Packing Materials and Gaskets

Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices

Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices

Carbon Fibers in Carbon-Carbon Applications

Carbon Fibers in Cement and Concrete

Carbon Fibers in Glass Matrices

Carbon Fibers in Ceramic Matrices

Carbon Fibers in Metal Matrices

Other End Uses for Carbon Fibers

LOOKING TO THE FUTURE

The Future

The Production Process

Carbon Fiber

Composite Manufacturing Techniqes

Quality Management Standartds

Recycling

Innovative Developments

Conclusions

Appendices

About the Series

Materials Engineering

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science