1st Edition

Carbon Nanotubes for Polymer Reinforcement

By Peng-Cheng Ma, Jang-Kyo Kim Copyright 2011
    224 Pages 88 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    224 Pages 88 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Discovered in the twentieth century, carbon nanotubes (CNT) were an integral part of science and industry by the beginning of the twenty first century, revolutionizing chemistry, physics, and materials science. More recent advances in carbon nanotube production methods have resulted in a tremendous push to incorporate CNTs into polymer matrices. Although many advances have been made, two major obstacles continue unresolved: the enhancement of interfacial adhesion between CNTs and polymer matrix, and the improvement of dispersion of CNTs in polymers.

    Both substantial original contributors to the field, the authors present Carbon Nanotubes for Polymer Reinforcement, the first monograph on various conventional and innovative techniques to disperse and functionalize carbon nanotubes for polymer reinforcement, elegantly explaining the basic sciences and technologies involved in those processes. Topics covered include:

    • Use of CNTs in fabricating novel polymer composites
    • Principles and mechanisms behind CNT dispersion and functionalization
    • Methods for the functionalization and dispersion of CNTs in polymer matrices
    • Effects of CNTs on functional and mechanical properties of polymer composites
    • Optimization of CNT/polymer nanocomposite fabrication

    Carbon Nanotubes for Polymer Reinforcement is a comprehensive treatment and critical review of the new class of polymer nanocomposites, and points to areas of future developments. Composites engineers, scientists, researchers, and students will find the basic knowledge and technical results contained herein informative and useful references for their work, whether for advanced research or for design and manufacture of such composites.

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Introduction to carbon nanotubes (CNTs)

    1.1.1 Family of Carbon Materials

    1.1.2 History of CNTs

    1.1.3 Synthesis of CNTs

    1.2 Properties of CNTs

    1.2.1 Structure properties

    1.2.2 Mechanical properties

    1.2.3 Electrical/electronic properties

    1.2.4 Thermal properties

    1.2.5 Optical properties

    1.2.6 Magnetic properties

    1.2.7 Defects on CNTs

    1.2.8 Others

    1.3 Characterization of CNTs

    1.3.1 Structure and morphological characterization of CNTs

    1.3.2 Characterization of surface functionalities on CNTs

    1.4 Other Carbon Nanofillers

    1.4.1 Carbon Nanofibers

    1.4.2 Spherical Carbonaceous Nanofillers

    1.5 Other Nanotubes


    2. Dispersion of CNTs

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Dispersion behavior of CNTs

    2.2.1 Dispersion and Distribution of CNTs

    2.2.2 Nature of Dispersion Problems for CNTs

    2.2.3 Surface Area and Interaction between CNTs

    2.3 Techniques for Mechanical Dispersion of CNTs

    2.3.1 Ultrasonication

    2.3.2 Calendering

    2.3.3 Ball Milling

    2.3.4 Stir and Extrusion

    2.3.5 Other Techniques

    2.4 Characterization of CNT dispersion

    2.4.1 Microscopic methods

    2.4.2 Light methods

    2.4.3 Zeta potential

    2.5 Dispersion of CNTs in Liquid Media

    2.5.1 Dispersion of CNTs in Water and Organic Solvents

    2.5.2 Dispersion of CNTs in polymers

    2.6 CNT dispersion Using Surfactants

    2.6.1 Role of surfactants in CNT dispersion

    2.6.2 Nonionic surfactant-assisted CNT dispersion

    2.6.3 Ionic surfactant-assisted CNT dispersion

    2.6.4 Cationic surfactant-assisted CNT dispersion


    3. Functionalization of CNTs

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Covalent Functionalization of CNTs

    3.2.1 Direct side wall functionalization

    3.2.2 Defect functionalization

    3.3 Non-covalent functionalization of CNTs

    3.3.1 Surfactant adsorption

    3.3.2 Polymer wrapping

    3.3.3 Endohedral method

    3.4 CNT Interactions with Biomolecules

    3.4.1 Interaction with DNA

    3.4.2 Interaction with Proteins

    3.4.3 Interaction with Living Cells

    3.4.4 Interaction with Carbohydrate

    3.5 CNT functionalization in different phases

    3.5.1 CNT functionalization in liquid phase

    3.5.2 CNT functionalization in solid phase

    3.5.3 CNT functionalization in gas phase

    3.6 Effects of functionalization on the properties of CNTs

    3.6.1 Dispersibility and Wettability of CNTs

    3.6.2 Mechanical properties

    3.6.3 Electrical/electronic properties

    3.6.4 Thermal properties

    3.7 Nanoparticle (NP)/CNT nanohybrids

    3.7.1 Introduction

    3.7.2 Fabrication of NP/CNY Nanohybrids

    3.6.2 Applications of NP/CNY Nanohybrids


    4. CNT/Polymer Nanocomposites

    4.1 Introduction

    4.1.1 Polymer Nanocomposites

    4.1.2 Classification of CNT/Polymer Nanocomposites

    4.2 Fabrication of CNT/Polymer Nanocomposites

    4.2.1 Solution mixing

    4.2.2 Melt blending

    4.2.3 In-situ polymerization

    4.2.4 Latex technology

    4.2.5 Resin Transfer Molding

    4.2.6 Others

    4.3 Effects of CNT Dispersion and Functionalization on the Properties of CNT/Polymer Nanocomposites

    4.3.1 Dispersion Behavior of Functionalized CNTs in Polymer Matrix

    4.3.2 Mechanical properties

    4.3.3 Electrical properties

    4.3.4 Thermal properties

    4.3.5 Optical properties

    4.3.6 Rheological properties

    4.3.7 Damping properties

    4.4 Control of CNT/Polymer Interface

    4.4.1 Importance of Interface

    4.4.2 Methodologies for Studying CNT/Polymer Interface


    5. Application of CNT/Polymer Nanocomposites

    5.1 Structural application of CNT /polymer nanocomposites

    5.1.1 Modifier of Traditional Fiber-Reinforced Polymers

    5.1.2 Automobile Application

    5.1.3 Aerospace Application

    5.1.4 Other Structural Application

    5.2 Functional application of CNT/polymer nanocomposites

    5.2.1 Conducting Films and Coatings

    5.2.2 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding

    5.2.3 Sensors and Actuators

    5.2.4 Energy Application

    5.2.5 Other Application




    Peng-Cheng Ma is currently a Humboldt Postdoctoral Researcher at the Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research in Dresden, Germany. Jang-Kyo Kim is currently a Professor, Associate Dean of Engineering and Director of the Finextex-HKUST R&D Center at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.


    Researchers working in the field of CNTs will greatly appreciate the convenience of this compilation that describes dispersion and functionalization of CNT into polymer composites. … researchers new to this field of research would greatly benefit from the clear and comprehensive review of these two critical parameters and will quickly gain a deep technical insight into the details.
    IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, March/April 2012