1st Edition

Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Materials, Synthesis, and Applications

By Michael E. Fleet Copyright 2015
    278 Pages 1 Color & 73 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    This book introduces recent advances in understanding the crystal structure of carbonate hydroxylapatite (also known as bone mineral), which forms the hard tissue of bones and teeth. Bone mineral is the reservoir for carbon dioxide in the body and maintains the concentration of mineral ions in body fluids at homeostasis. The detailed structure of bone mineral has remained obscure more than 80 years after publication of the basic apatite structure, because of the nanoscale size and poor quality of bone mineral crystals. An entirely new approach to the determination of carbonate apatite structures has resulted in a greatly expanded role for the c-axis channel of bone mineral crystals in the control of metabolic acidosis and blood pH.

    The book includes chapters on apatite mineralogy and geochemistry, synthesis methods, x-ray structure, infrared spectroscopy, crystal chemistry of carbonate hydroxylapatite, and biological apatites. There are 74 illustrations, 25 tables of data, and 3 appendixes. Discussion of the new research is supported by an outline of the theory behind the methods of investigation and reviews of previous research on hydroxylapatite materials, for the benefit of non-specialist students and researchers.


    Apatite-type Structure



    Hydroxylapatite and chlorapatite

    Other space groups

    Crystal Chemistry and Geochemistry

    Apatite crystal chemistry

    Geochemical aspects of calcium phosphate apatites

    Synthesis of Carbonate Apatites



    Type A CHAP

    Type B and type AB CHAP

    Sodium-bearing type AB CHAP

    Type B CFAP with acetate impurity


    Synthesis at high pressure and temperature

    X-ray Structures


    Theoretical aspects

    Unit-cell parameters for CHAP

    Structural information from X-ray powder patterns

    Single-crystal X-ray structures

    Chemical Spectroscopy


    Infrared Spectroscopy

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Carbonate Apatite Crystal Chemistry


    Symmetry of type A CHAP

    Location of type B carbonate ion

    Proportion of A and B carbonate from 2 band areas

    Coupling of sodium and A and B carbonate substituents

    Hydrogencarbonate CHAP

    Mobility of carbonate species

    Monohydrogen phosphate ion

    Pressure stability of the A2 carbonate ion

    Isothermal bulk modulus of CHAP

    Excess fluorine in francolite


    Biological Apatites


    Calcium phosphates in the body

    Crystal size and crystallinity

    Crystal structure of CHAP

    Structure of bone mineral and other biological apatites

    Mobility of carbonate ions in bone mineral

    Appendix I: Minerals within the Apatite Supergroup

    Appendix II: Compositions of Some Apatites

    Appendix III: Crystal Structure Data for Synthetic Carbonate Apatites (CHAP, CFAP)

    References Cited



    Michael Fleet was educated at Manchester University, UK, and enjoyed a scholarly career in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, where he is currently professor emeritus. He has published extensively in the general area of earth material science, using x-ray crystallography, laboratory synthesis and experimentation, and chemical spectroscopy as his primary research tools. Prof. Fleet’s research interests have encompassed metal sulphides; geochemistry of gold, nickel, and platinum; high-pressure silicates; apatite; rare earth silicates; mica minerals; and boron. He is the author of Micas, volume 3A in the Rock-Forming Minerals series. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1996, awarded the Past Presidents’ Medal of the Mineralogical Association of Canada in 1997, and appointed honorary professor at Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China, in 2006.

    "As interest in apatite continues to rise, this timely book is an absolute must-read for all apatite researchers, regardless of discipline. Professor Fleet collects a large body of research on carbonated apatite, from many disparate disciplines, and synthesizes it exceptionally well. This book now becomes the authoritative reference on carbonated apatite."

    —Prof. John M. Hughes, University of Vermont, USA

    "This is an authoritative and comprehensive review of our current knowledge about carbonate-bearing hydroxylapatite, the main mineral constituent of bones and teeth in vertebrates. Much has been learned in recent years about the detailed structure and chemistry of this mineral and methods for use in biomaterials. The author is one of the world’s leading researchers on the structure and chemistry of apatite group minerals."

    —Prof. John Rakovan, Miami University, USA

    "This book, written by the world’s foremost expert on carbonated hydroxylapatite, provides comprehensive accounts of the state-of-the-art knowledge, the latest approaches, and new research directions about this bone mineral. The book will be of particular interest to all researchers and graduate students of biomaterials."

    —Prof. Yuanming Pan, University of Saskatchewan, Canada