Carbonated Hydroxyapatite : Materials, Synthesis, and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Carbonated Hydroxyapatite
Materials, Synthesis, and Applications

ISBN 9789814463676
Published December 22, 2014 by Jenny Stanford Publishing
278 Pages 1 Color & 73 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This book introduces recent advances in understanding the crystal structure of carbonate hydroxylapatite (also known as bone mineral), which forms the hard tissue of bones and teeth. Bone mineral is the reservoir for carbon dioxide in the body and maintains the concentration of mineral ions in body fluids at homeostasis. The detailed structure of bone mineral has remained obscure more than 80 years after publication of the basic apatite structure, because of the nanoscale size and poor quality of bone mineral crystals. An entirely new approach to the determination of carbonate apatite structures has resulted in a greatly expanded role for the c-axis channel of bone mineral crystals in the control of metabolic acidosis and blood pH.

The book includes chapters on apatite mineralogy and geochemistry, synthesis methods, x-ray structure, infrared spectroscopy, crystal chemistry of carbonate hydroxylapatite, and biological apatites. There are 74 illustrations, 25 tables of data, and 3 appendixes. Discussion of the new research is supported by an outline of the theory behind the methods of investigation and reviews of previous research on hydroxylapatite materials, for the benefit of non-specialist students and researchers.

Table of Contents


Apatite-type Structure



Hydroxylapatite and chlorapatite

Other space groups

Crystal Chemistry and Geochemistry

Apatite crystal chemistry

Geochemical aspects of calcium phosphate apatites

Synthesis of Carbonate Apatites




Type B and type AB CHAP

Sodium-bearing type AB CHAP

Type B CFAP with acetate impurity


Synthesis at high pressure and temperature

X-ray Structures


Theoretical aspects

Unit-cell parameters for CHAP

Structural information from X-ray powder patterns

Single-crystal X-ray structures

Chemical Spectroscopy


Infrared Spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Carbonate Apatite Crystal Chemistry


Symmetry of type A CHAP

Location of type B carbonate ion

Proportion of A and B carbonate from 2 band areas

Coupling of sodium and A and B carbonate substituents

Hydrogencarbonate CHAP

Mobility of carbonate species

Monohydrogen phosphate ion

Pressure stability of the A2 carbonate ion

Isothermal bulk modulus of CHAP

Excess fluorine in francolite


Biological Apatites


Calcium phosphates in the body

Crystal size and crystallinity

Crystal structure of CHAP

Structure of bone mineral and other biological apatites

Mobility of carbonate ions in bone mineral

Appendix I: Minerals within the Apatite Supergroup

Appendix II: Compositions of Some Apatites

Appendix III: Crystal Structure Data for Synthetic Carbonate Apatites (CHAP, CFAP)

References Cited


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Michael Fleet was educated at Manchester University, UK, and enjoyed a scholarly career in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, where he is currently professor emeritus. He has published extensively in the general area of earth material science, using x-ray crystallography, laboratory synthesis and experimentation, and chemical spectroscopy as his primary research tools. Prof. Fleet’s research interests have encompassed metal sulphides; geochemistry of gold, nickel, and platinum; high-pressure silicates; apatite; rare earth silicates; mica minerals; and boron. He is the author of Micas, volume 3A in the Rock-Forming Minerals series. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1996, awarded the Past Presidents’ Medal of the Mineralogical Association of Canada in 1997, and appointed honorary professor at Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China, in 2006.


"As interest in apatite continues to rise, this timely book is an absolute must-read for all apatite researchers, regardless of discipline. Professor Fleet collects a large body of research on carbonated apatite, from many disparate disciplines, and synthesizes it exceptionally well. This book now becomes the authoritative reference on carbonated apatite."

—Prof. John M. Hughes, University of Vermont, USA

"This is an authoritative and comprehensive review of our current knowledge about carbonate-bearing hydroxylapatite, the main mineral constituent of bones and teeth in vertebrates. Much has been learned in recent years about the detailed structure and chemistry of this mineral and methods for use in biomaterials. The author is one of the world’s leading researchers on the structure and chemistry of apatite group minerals."

—Prof. John Rakovan, Miami University, USA

"This book, written by the world’s foremost expert on carbonated hydroxylapatite, provides comprehensive accounts of the state-of-the-art knowledge, the latest approaches, and new research directions about this bone mineral. The book will be of particular interest to all researchers and graduate students of biomaterials."

—Prof. Yuanming Pan, University of Saskatchewan, Canada