This book introduces recent advances in understanding the crystal structure of carbonate hydroxylapatite (also known as bone mineral), which forms the hard tissue of bones and teeth. Bone mineral is the reservoir for carbon dioxide in the body and maintains the concentration of mineral ions in body fluids at homeostasis. The detailed structure of bone mineral has remained obscure more than 80 years after publication of the basic apatite structure, because of the nanoscale size and poor quality of bone mineral crystals. An entirely new approach to the determination of carbonate apatite structures has resulted in a greatly expanded role for the c-axis channel of bone mineral crystals in the control of metabolic acidosis and blood pH.
The book includes chapters on apatite mineralogy and geochemistry, synthesis methods, x-ray structure, infrared spectroscopy, crystal chemistry of carbonate hydroxylapatite, and biological apatites. There are 74 illustrations, 25 tables of data, and 3 appendixes. Discussion of the new research is supported by an outline of the theory behind the methods of investigation and reviews of previous research on hydroxylapatite materials, for the benefit of non-specialist students and researchers.
Table of Contents
Hydroxylapatite and chlorapatite
Other space groups
Crystal Chemistry and Geochemistry
Apatite crystal chemistry
Geochemical aspects of calcium phosphate apatites
Synthesis of Carbonate Apatites
Type A CHAP
Type B and type AB CHAP
Sodium-bearing type AB CHAP
Type B CFAP with acetate impurity
Synthesis at high pressure and temperature
Unit-cell parameters for CHAP
Structural information from X-ray powder patterns
Single-crystal X-ray structures
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Carbonate Apatite Crystal Chemistry
Symmetry of type A CHAP
Location of type B carbonate ion
Proportion of A and B carbonate from 2 band areas
Coupling of sodium and A and B carbonate substituents
Mobility of carbonate species
Monohydrogen phosphate ion
Pressure stability of the A2 carbonate ion
Isothermal bulk modulus of CHAP
Excess fluorine in francolite
Calcium phosphates in the body
Crystal size and crystallinity
Crystal structure of CHAP
Structure of bone mineral and other biological apatites
Mobility of carbonate ions in bone mineral
Appendix I: Minerals within the Apatite Supergroup
Appendix II: Compositions of Some Apatites
Appendix III: Crystal Structure Data for Synthetic Carbonate Apatites (CHAP, CFAP)
Michael Fleet was educated at Manchester University, UK, and enjoyed a scholarly career in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, where he is currently professor emeritus. He has published extensively in the general area of earth material science, using x-ray crystallography, laboratory synthesis and experimentation, and chemical spectroscopy as his primary research tools. Prof. Fleet’s research interests have encompassed metal sulphides; geochemistry of gold, nickel, and platinum; high-pressure silicates; apatite; rare earth silicates; mica minerals; and boron. He is the author of Micas, volume 3A in the Rock-Forming Minerals series. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1996, awarded the Past Presidents’ Medal of the Mineralogical Association of Canada in 1997, and appointed honorary professor at Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China, in 2006.
"As interest in apatite continues to rise, this timely book is an absolute must-read for all apatite researchers, regardless of discipline. Professor Fleet collects a large body of research on carbonated apatite, from many disparate disciplines, and synthesizes it exceptionally well. This book now becomes the authoritative reference on carbonated apatite."
—Prof. John M. Hughes, University of Vermont, USA
"This is an authoritative and comprehensive review of our current knowledge about carbonate-bearing hydroxylapatite, the main mineral constituent of bones and teeth in vertebrates. Much has been learned in recent years about the detailed structure and chemistry of this mineral and methods for use in biomaterials. The author is one of the world’s leading researchers on the structure and chemistry of apatite group minerals."
—Prof. John Rakovan, Miami University, USA
"This book, written by the world’s foremost expert on carbonated hydroxylapatite, provides comprehensive accounts of the state-of-the-art knowledge, the latest approaches, and new research directions about this bone mineral. The book will be of particular interest to all researchers and graduate students of biomaterials."
—Prof. Yuanming Pan, University of Saskatchewan, Canada