Carrier Ethernet: Providing the Need for Speed, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Carrier Ethernet

Providing the Need for Speed, 1st Edition

By Gilbert Held

Auerbach Publications

224 pages | 99 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781420060393
pub: 2008-03-11
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Description

Facilitating high data transfers over long distances at a reasonable cost, Carrier Ethernet is solidifying its fundamental position as the core of next-generation networks. Since it first dazzled the IT world 40 years ago with its ability to move data over local networks, Ethernet has dramatically evolved in both form and function. And now, Carrier Ethernet, flexing its multi-gigabit muscle, is rapidly emerging as the undisputed technology of choice.

As engaging as it is comprehensive, this volume—

  • Examines the differences between the so-called flavors of Ethernet
  • Provides refreshers on virtual LANs (VLANs), virtual private networks (VPNs), and Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Details Carrier advantages over other modalities with regard to network performance
  • Delves into Service Level Agreements, including ways to obtain a quality of service for the movement of voice and real-time video, as well as the creation of VLANs to facilitate the movement of data
  • Describes various services that can be enabled over an Ethernet infrastructure
  • All You Need to Know about this Carrier-Class System

    Ensuring seamless migration to Carrier Ethernet from existing technologies, as well as integration with emerging services, this text provides readers with the expert guidance needed to make full use of Ethernet technology, both now and into the future.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction to Carrier Ethernet

    Defining Carrier Ethernet

    Overview

    Rationale

    Expanded Use of Ethernet LANs

    Frame Compatibility

    Low Cost

    High Network Access Speeds

    Mass Market for Technology

    Business Continuity

    Enabling Technologies

    Copper and Fiber Infrastructure

    ADSL

    ADSL2 and ADSL2+

    SHDSL

    VDSL

    VPNs

    Types of VPNs

    Protocols

    Service Provider Provisioned VPNs

    VLANs

    Broadcast Domain Reduction

    Facilitate Subnet Creation

    Reduce Hardware Requirements

    Traffic Control

    Types of VLANs

    MPLS

    Overview

    Architecture

    Operation

    Applications

    Interconnecting Distributed Offices

    Providing Real-Time Backup

    Voice, Video, and Data Support

    Challenges to Carrier Ethernet

    Total Cost of Operation

    Packet Overhead

    Management and Troubleshooting

    Reliability

    Security

    QoS

    Data Networking Concepts

    Transport Technologies

    LANs

    WANs

    Characteristics

    Wireless

    Data Protocols

    Ethernet

    Evolution

    IEEE Involvement

    Network Interfaces

    Network Equipment

    Network Interface Cards

    Hubs

    Operation

    Passive versus Intelligent

    Hubs

    Switches

    Operation

    Advantages

    Evolution

    Routers

    Operation

    Advantages

    Capabilities

    Firewall

    Placement

    Operation

    VPN Appliances

    Operation

    Advantages

    Combining Functions

    Network Facilities

    T1

    The DSO Time Slot

    T-Carrier Hierarchy

    Channelized versus Non-Channelized

    SONET

    Optical Carrier Levels

    Framing

    Utilization

    The Flavors of Ethernet

    Metcalfe’s Original Design

    Bus-Based Network Structure

    The DIX Standard

    DIX Version 2.0

    IEEE 802.3 Standardization

    Division of Effort

    Physical Layer Effort

    Network Layer Effort

    Data Link Layer

    IEEE Changes from DIX

    802.3 Frame Format

    Sub-Network Access Protocol

    The CSMA/CD Protocol

    Frame Size

    Early Ethernet

    The 10 Mbps Ethernet Family

    10BASE-5

    10BASE-2

    10BROAD-36

    10BASE-T

    Network Characteristics

    5-4-3 Rule

    FOIRL and 10BASE-F

    Fast Ethernet

    100BASE-T

    Layer Subdivision

    100BASE-TX

    Network Configuration

    Coding

    Repeaters

    100BASE-T4

    100BASE-T4 Repeater Hub

    100BASE-T2

    Auto-Negotiation

    LIT Pulses

    FLP Pulses

    Parallel Detection Function

    The Base Page

    The Next Page Function

    Extended Next Page Function

    Priorities

    Option Considerations

    Fiber

    100BASE-FX

    100BASE-SX

    100BASE-BX

    Gigabit Ethernet

    Fiber-Based Gigabit Ethernet

    1000BASE-SX

    1000BASE-LX

    Fiber Auto-Negotiation

    1000BASE-ZX and LH

    Copper-Based Gigabit Ethernet

    1000BASE-CX

    1000BASE-T

    Summary

    10 Gigabit Ethernet

    GbE versus 10 GbE

    Layers and Interfaces

    XGMII

    XAUI

    XGMII

    MAC

    PCS

    PMA

    PMD

    WAN Physical Layer

    10 GbE over Copper

    10GBASE-CX4

    10GBASE-T

    Ethernet in the First Mile

    Architectures

    Physical Layer Interfaces

    Applications

    Advantages

    Use of Dual Fibers

    Use of Single Fibers

    EPON

    MPCP

    Frame Formats

    Basic Ethernet

    The Ethernet II/DIX Frame

    Preamble Field

    Destination Address Field

    Source Address Field

    Type Field

    Data Field

    Frame Check Sequence Field

    The 802.3 Frame

    Length Field

    Preamble Field Modification

    Type/Length Field Values

    The 802.2 Header

    Subnetwork Access Protocol

    LLC Header Operation

    The SNAP Frame

    IPX over Ethernet

    Full Duplex and the Pause Frame

    Advantages

    Flow Control

    PAUSE Frame

    Overview

    Frame Fields

    VLAN Tagging

    The 802.1Q Standard

    Advantages

    Frame Format

    SNAP Frames

    Frame Determination

    Fast Ethernet

    4B5B Coding

    Delimiters

    Interframe Gap

    Gigabit Ethernet

    Carrier Extension

    Half-Duplex Use

    Frame Bursting

    Jumbo Frames

    Operation

    Length Rationale

    Advantages

    Problems and Solutions

    Performance

    Basic Ethernet

    SNAP Frames

    Gigabit Ethernet

    Frame Rates

    Mathematical Oddities

    Frame Rate Computations

    Gigabit Constraints

    LAN Switches

    Bridge Operations

    Transparent and Translating Bridges

    Plug-and-Play Operation

    Bridge Operation

    Intelligent Switching Hubs

    Basic Components

    Buffer Memory

    Delay Times

    Parallel Switching

    Switch Operations

    Switching Techniques

    Cross-Point Switching

    Operation

    Latency

    Store-and-Forward

    Filtering Capability

    Operation

    Delay Time

    Hybrid

    Switch Port Address Support

    Port-Based Switching

    Segment-Based Switching

    Applications

    Considering Port Capability

    Basic Switching

    Multi-Tier Networking

    Interconnecting Dispersed Offices

    Virtual LANs

    Characteristics

    Construction Basics

    Implicit versus Explicit Tagging

    Using Implicit Tagging

    Explicit Tagging

    The IEEE 802.1Q Standard

    Vendor Implementation

    Carrier Ethernet Services

    Overview

    The Metro Ethernet Forum

    Requirements for Use

    VLAN Tagging

    The 802.1P (Priority) Standard

    Latency Considerations

    Fiber Connectivity

    Transporting Ethernet in a Service Provider Network

    Operating over Other Transports

    Comparison to Other Layer 2 Protocols

    Ethernet Topologies

    Carrier Ethernet Service Types

    E-LINE

    E-LAN

    E-TREE

    Encapsulation Techniques

    VLAN Stacking

    Service Level Agreements and Quality of Service

    The Service Level Agreement

    Metrics

    Availability

    Latency

    Jitter

    MTTR

    Installation Time

    Bandwidth Provisioning

    Packet Loss

    Guaranteed Bandwidth

    SLA Problems

    OAM Overview

    OAM and Ethernet

    Ethernet OAMs

    Functions

    Testing

    Link-Layer OAM

    Service OAM

    Quality of Service Overview

    Soft versus Hard QoS

    Soft QoS

    Hard QoS

    QoS Actions

    Classification

    Policing

    Queuing

    Scheduling

    Cisco ML-Series Card

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    COM043000
    COMPUTERS / Networking / General
    TEC007000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
    TEC041000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications
    TEC061000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications