First published in 1999, this book describes what the International community of scientific institutions could do to reverse this trend, by pooling its know-how and resources in International and interdisciplinary working groups and standing committees, by preparing options for action and by standing the possibilities for overcoming the political and economic obstacles to the implementation of expert advice. The reasons are given why neighboring groups of people sooner or later start fighting each other unless certain conditions are fulfilled. These conditions are enumerated. Historical examples are presented. Since lack of mutual trust, often based on inherited enemy images, is at the roots of many conflicts is shown how trust among former opponents can be created by working on joint projects, particularly when both sides are threatened by the same danger. In previous history this danger was often a common enemy. Today we must learn that all of mankind is threatened by environmental and other global problems which can only be mastered by joint efforts, forgetting the enmities of earlier generations. Furthermore, it is explained that many catastrophes could be avoided if risks were properly assessed and taken seriously and necessary precautions not avoided for financial reasons, just hoping for the best.
1. Catastrophes as By-Products of Human Activities: How can they be Avoided? 2. Pluralism and Pugnacity. 3. New Patterns of Conflict, Old Methods of Conflict Resolution? 4. A Negative Goal for Science. 5. Is There Any Hope for the Control of Regional Conflicts by Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs). 6. The Need for Neutral Scientific Advice in Complex Situations of High Risk. 7. Arms Proliferation and Nationalism as Parts of the Network of Threats to Peace and Security. 8. Violent and Peaceful Settlements of Ethnic Conflicts. 9. Modern Methods of Information Storage and Exchange in the Service of Problem Clarification, Crisis Management and Conflict Solution. 10. The Multiplicity of Human Philosophies and the Threat Perceptions Appearing in the Absence of Common Enemies or Joint Goals. 11. The Relations Between Industrialised and Developing Countries. 12. Changing of Long-Range Political Goals as a Psychological Pre-requisite for Progress in Arms Control. 13. SDI and Stability. 14. Trust Creating by Discussion of Long-Range Goals. 15. Western Perceptions of Soviet Goals. 16. Mutual Perceptions of Long-Range Goals. 17. Integrated Europe? 18. Perceptions of the Europe to Tomorrow. 19. International "Security in a Wider Sense". 20. Science Advice to the United Nations. 21. The Scientific Culture and Its Role in International Negotiations. 22. The New World Order and the Role of Science. 23. Summaries.
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