Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixtures: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixtures

1st Edition

By Mustafa Tokyay

CRC Press

318 pages | 196 B/W Illus.

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Supplementary cementing materials and other mineral admixtures are being used in increasing amounts in both cement and concrete. Their main technical benefits are that they enhance the workability of fresh concrete and the durability of hardened concrete. Indeed, they affect almost every property of the concrete. Their economic and ecological benefits may be just as significant, and their use can be expected to increase as concrete remains the most common construction material.

Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixtures concentrates mostly on natural pozzolans, fly ashes, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume and limestone powder, namely the most commonly used mineral admixtures. Others such as metakaolin, rice husk ash, expanded clays and shales are also discussed. Their chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties are outlined. The influence of mineral admixtures on the hydration of cementitious systems, and the properties of fresh and hardened concrete in which they are used are emphasized. International standards are reviewed. The basics of concrete mix proportioning with mineral admixtures are outlined. The possibilities of using mineral admixtures as constituents of special concretes such as self-compacting, reactive powder, roller-compacted concretes and special non-portland, low-cost, low-energy and/or low-CO2 cements such as alinite, calcium sulfoaluminate, and belitic cements and alkali-activated binders are also covered.

The book is a comprehensive reference for senior undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the fields of cement and concrete, and for cement and concrete practitioners.


"Clearly written and incredibly comprehensive."

—review in Concrete Construction magazine

"… an ideal choice … gives [a] clear cut way to describe each important thing you need to know. I strongly recommend it."

—Stamatis Tsimas, Professor at National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece

"Professor Tokyay is a prominent researcher in the field of cement and concrete. While there is [a] wealth of information on cement and cement alternatives, the book presents a fresh look on the cement and concrete mineral admixtures. It is well structured and easy to follow."

—Professor Jamal Khatib, University of Wolverhampton, UK

"… provides a comprehensive review of the effects of using supplementary cementitious materials in concrete. The detailed coverage of the chemical and physical mechanisms behind these effects will be useful to students and practitioners alike."

—Peter Taylor, Iowa State University, Ames, USA

"As Dr. Tokyay mentioned, ‘technical’, ‘economical’ and ‘ecological’ advantages of mineral admixtures are undisputed. With a thorough state-of-the-art literature review, this book explains the importance of all those three advantages and simply shows us why in the near future we will not be able to see a concrete without the presence of these mineral admixtures.” —Ismail Özgür Yaman, Middle East Technical University, Turkey

Table of Contents

Admixtures and Additions


Mineral Admixtures

Natural Pozzolans


Chemical Composition

Mineralogical Composition


Fly Ashes


Mineralogical Composition

Chemical Composition and Classification

Fineness, Particle Size Distribution and Particle Morphology



Blast Furnace Slag


Mineralogical Composition

Chemical Composition


Silica Fume


Chemical Composition

Mineralogical Composition

Fineness and Particle Morphology

Limestone Powder


Chemical Composition

Mineralogical Composition

Fineness and Particle Size Distribution

Other Mineral Admixtures

Calcined Soils

Rice Husk Ash

Other Industrial and Agricultural Wastes as Possible Mineral Admixtures

Effects of Mineral Admixtures on Hydration of Portland Cement

General about PCs

PC Hydration

Influence of Mineral Admixtures on Hydration

Effects of Mineral Admixtures on the Workability of Fresh Concrete

General about Concrete Workability

Changes in Concrete Workability upon Mineral Admixture Incorporation

Changes in Setting Time upon Mineral Admixture Incorporation

Effects of Mineral Admixture Incorporation on Air Content of Fresh Concrete

Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Early Heat of Hydration

Effects of Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of Hardened Concrete


Modulus of Elasticity



Effects of Mineral Admixtures on Durability of Concrete

Freezing and Thawing

Sulphate Attack

Sea Water Attack


Reinforcement Corrosion

Alkali–Aggregate Reactivity

Permeability of Concrete

Proportioning Mineral Admixture-Incorporated Concretes

Principles of Concrete Mix Proportioning

Mix Proportioning Concrete with Mineral Admixtures

Water–Cement and Water–Cementitious Ratio and Efficiency Factor Concepts

International Standards on Mineral Admixtures in Cement and Concrete

Overview of the Cement Standards

Overview of Standards on Mineral Admixtures in Concrete

Use of Mineral Admixtures in Special Concretes

Lightweight Concrete

High-Strength Concrete

Controlled Low-Strength Materials

Self-Consolidating Concrete

Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

Reactive Powder Concrete

Mass Concrete

Roller Compacted Concrete

Mineral Admixtures as Primary Components of Special Cements

Sustainability and Cement

Low-Energy, Low-CO2 Cements with Mineral Admixtures


About the Author

Dr. Mustafa Tokyay is a professor of civil engineering in the Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey. He served as the civil engineering department chair (1999–2003) and dean of the engineering faculty (2003–2006) in the same university. He worked as a visiting researcher at Dundee University, Scotland (1988–1989) and as a visiting professor at the Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus (1993–1994). His research interests include cement and concrete technology and the use of industrial by-products in cement and concrete. He is the author, coauthor or editor of more than 70 papers, proceedings and books.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General