Ceramic Processing and Sintering: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Ceramic Processing and Sintering

2nd Edition

By Mohamed N. Rahaman

CRC Press

875 pages

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pub: 2003-07-31
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Description

As the field's premiere source, this reference is extensively revised and expanded to collect hard-to-find applications, equations, derivations, and examples illustrating the latest developments in ceramic processing technology. This book is concerned primarily with the processing of polycrystalline ceramics and focuses on the widespread fabrication of ceramics by the firing of consolidated powders forms. A brief treatment of sol-gel processing is also included.

Ceramic Processing and Sintering, Second Edition provides clear and intensive discussions on colloidal and sol-gel processing, sintering of ceramics, and kinetic processes in materials. From powder synthesis and consolidation to sintering and densification behavior, this latest edition emphasizes the impact of each processing procedure on ceramic properties. The second edition also contains new and extended discussions on colloid stability, polymer growth and gelation, additives in ceramic forming, diffusion and defect strucutre, normal and abnormal grain growth, microwave sintering, Rayleigh instability effects, and Ostwald ripening.

Illustrating the interconnectedness between the various steps in the overall fabrication route, Ceramic Processing and Sintering, Second Edition approaches the fundamental issues of each process and show how they are applied to the practical fabrication of ceramics.

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Table of Contents

CERAMIC FABRICATION PROCESSES: AN INTRODUCTORY OVERVIEW

Introduction

Ceramic Fabrication Processes

Production of Polycrystalline Ceramics from Powders: An Overview

A Case Study in Processing: The Fabrication of TiO 2 from Powders

SYNTHESIS OF POWDERS

Introduction

Desirable Powder Characteristics

Powder Synthesis Methods

Powder Preparation by Mechanical Methods

Powder Synthesis by Chemical Methods

POWDER CHARACTERIZATION

Introduction

Physical Characterization

Chemical Composition

Crystal Structure and Phase Composition

Surface Characterization

SCIENCE OF COLLOIDAL PROCESSING

Introduction

Types of Colloids

Attractive Surface Forces

Stabilization of Colloidal Suspensions

Electrostatic Stabilization

Steric Stabilization

Electrosteric Stabilization

Structure of Consolidated Colloids

Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions

SOL-GEL PROCESSING

Introduction

Types of Gels

Sol-Gel Processing of Aqueous Silicates

Metal Alkoxides

Sol-Gel Processing of Silicon Alkoxides

Sol-Gel Preparation Techniques

Applications of Sol-Gel Processing

POWDER CONSOLIDATION AND FORMING OF CERAMICS

Introduction

Packing of Particles

Additives and Ceramic Forming

Forming of Ceramics

Drying of Granular Ceramics

Binder Removal

Green Microstructures and Their Characterization

SINTERING OF CERAMICS: FUNDAMENTALS

Introduction

Driving Force for Sintering

Defects in Crystalline Solids

Diffusion in Crystalline Solids

Chemical Potential

Diffusional Flux Equations

Vapor Pressure Over a Curved Surface

Diffusion in Ionic Crystals: Ambipolar Diffusion

THEORY OF SOLID-STATE AND VISCOUS SINTERING

Introduction

Mechanisms of Sintering

Effects of Grain Boundaries

Theoretical Analysis of Sintering

Scaling Laws

Analytical Models

Numerical Simulation of Sintering

Phenomenological Sintering Equations

Sintering Diagrams

Sintering with an Externally Applied Pressure

The Stress Intensification Factor

The Sintering Stress

Measurement of the Sintering Stress and Stress

Intensification Factor

Alternative Derivation of the Sintering Equations

GRAIN GROWTH AND MICROSTRUCTURE CONTROL

Introduction

General Features of Grain Growth

Ostwald Ripening: The LSW Theory

Topological and Interfacial Tension Requirements

Normal Grain Growth in Dense Solids

Abnormal Grain Growth in Dense Solids

Mechanisms Controlling the Boundary Mobility

Grain Growth and Pore Evaluation in Porous Solids

Simultaneous Densification and Grain Growth

Fabrication Principles for Ceramics with Controlled

Microstructure

LIQUID-PHASE SINTERING

Introduction

Elementary Features of Liquid-Phase Sintering

Stages of Liquid-Phase Sintering

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Factors

Grain Boundary Films

The Basic Mechanisms of Liquid-Phase Sintering

Hot Pressing with a Liquid Phase

Use of Phase Diagrams in Liquid-Phase Sintering

Activated Sintering

Vitrification

SPECIAL TOPICS IN SINTERING

Introduction

Rayleigh Instability and Microstructural Evolution

Inhomogeneities and Their Effects on Sintering

Constrained Sintering I: Rigid Inclusions

Constrained Sintering II: Adherent Thin Films and Multilayers

Thin Films: Grain Growth and Dimensional Stability

Solid Solution Additives and the Sintering of Ceramics

Sintering with Chemical Reaction: Reaction Sintering

Viscous Sintering with Crystallization

DENSIFICATION PROCESS VARIABLES AND DENSIFICATION PRACTICE

Introduction

Conventional Sintering

Microwave Sintering

Pressure Sintering

Appendix A: Physical Constants

Appendix B: SI Units-Names and Symbols

Appendix C: Conversion of Units and Decimal Fractions and Multiples

Appendix D: Ionic Crystal Radii (in units of 10-10 m)

Appendix E: Density and Melting Point of Some Elements, Ceramics, and Minerals

Appendix F: Aperture Size of U.S. Standard Wire Mesh Sieves (ASTM E 11:87)

Index

*All chapter contain Concluding Remarks, Problems, and References

About the Series

Materials Engineering

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science