1st Edition

Characterization of Nanostructures

By Sverre Myhra, John C. Rivière Copyright 2013
    350 Pages 25 Color & 228 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    350 Pages 25 Color & 228 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The techniques and methods that can be applied to materials characterization on the microscale are numerous and well-established. Divided into two parts, Characterization of Nanostructures provides thumbnail sketches of the most widely used techniques and methods that apply to nanostructures, and discusses typical applications to single nanoscale objects, as well as to ensembles of such objects.

    Section I: Techniques and Methods overviews the physical principles of the main techniques and describes those operational modes that are most relevant to nanoscale characterization. It provides sufficient technical detail so that readers and prospective users can gain an appreciation of the strengths and limitations of particular techniques. The section covers both mainstream and less commonly used techniques.

    Section II: Applications of Techniques to Structures of Different Dimensionalities and Functionalities deals with the methods for materials characterization of generic types of systems, using carefully chosen illustrations from the literature. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the materials and supplies a context for the methods for characterization. The volume concludes with a series of flow charts and brief descriptions of tactical issues.

    The authors focus on the needs of the research laboratory but also address those of quality control, industrial troubleshooting, and online analysis. Characterization of Nanostructures describes those techniques and their operational modes that are most relevant to nanoscale characterization. It is especially relevant to systems of different dimensionalities and functionalities. The book builds a bridge between generalists, who play vital roles in the post-disciplinary area of nanotechnology, and specialists, who view themselves as more in the context of the discipline.

    Introduction to Characterization of Nanostructures
    Nanotechnology—In the Beginning There Was the Idea
    Nanotechnology as a Practical Proposition
    What Is Nanotechnology?
    Materials Characterization—What Is It?
    Current State of ‘Best Practice’ and QA

    Section I Techniques and Methods
    Electron-Optical Imaging of Nanostructures ((HR)TEM, STEM, and SEM)
    TEM Overview
    Interactions of Electrons with Matter
    Aberration Correction
    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
    The Issue of Radiation Damage during Imaging and Analysis
    Examples of SEM Performance
    Optimization of Image Quality

    Electron-Optical Analytical Techniques
    Loss Processes
    Technical Implementation and Methods
    Complementarity of EDS and EELS: A Case Study

    Photon-Optical Spectroscopy—Raman and Fluorescence
    Raman Spectroscopy
    Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Scanning Probe Techniques and Methods
    Technical Implementation
    Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP)
    Scanning Ion Current Microscopy (SICM)
    Future Prospects

    Techniques and Methods for Nanoscale Analysis of Single Particles and Ensembles of Particles
    Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) or Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS)
    Differential Centrifugal Sedimentation (DCS)
    Zeta Potential
    Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS)
    Surface Area Determination
    Surface and Bulk Chemistry
    Overview—Choices of Technique(s)

    Section II Applications
    C60 and Other Cage Structures
    Characterization of Fullerenes and Fullerene
    Endohedral Fullerenes
    Peapod Fullerenes in CNT

    Quantum Dots and Related Structures
    Particles in 2-D and 3-D Confinement
    Synthesis Routes for Quantum Dots
    Characterization of Quantum Dots
    Absorption and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots

    Carbon Nanotubes and Other Tube Structures
    Description of CNT Structure
    Synthesis Routes
    Electronic Structure of Graphene and SWCNT
    General Characteristics of CNTs
    Other Tube Structures
    Characterization of Nanotubes

    Synthesis Routes
    Characterisation of Nanowires by SEM and TEM
    Characterisation of Nanowire Heterostructures
    Characterization Related to Potential Applications

    Graphene and Other Monolayer Structures
    Graphene Structure
    Summary of Electronic Structure
    Other 2-D Structures (Nanosheets)
    Overview of Synthesis Routes
    Structural Characterization
    Raman Spectroscopic Characterization
    Characterization of Electronic Structure

    Nanostructures—Strategic and Tactical Issues
    Thinking about Strategy
    Thinking about Tactics
    Strategic Issues
    Preparation of Specimens for Characterization of Nanostructures
    Ensemble Averages: Limitations
    ‘Soft’ Materials—Specimen Preparation


    Sverre Myhra and John Riviere are affiliated with Oxford University, UK.

    "This book provides an understanding of the fundamental concepts of characterisation techniques for nanomaterials such as graphene, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots. The authors have nicely presented the complex theory of the physical techniques in a simple manner that will have immense benefit for the nanoscience community. … This book will be a valuable asset to students and newcomers to the field. Nanoscience researchers will also benefit as it covers the theory, techniques and applications from basic to advanced levels with up to date bibliographic information."
    Tapas Sen, Chemistry World, April 2013