Chemical Pesticides Mode of Action and Toxicology: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Chemical Pesticides Mode of Action and Toxicology

1st Edition

By Jørgen Stenersen

CRC Press

296 pages | 42 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780748409105
pub: 2004-05-27
$140.00
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Description

Environmental-friendliness, issues of public health, and the pros and cons of genetically-modified crops all receive regular coverage in the world's media. This, in turn, has led to increased questioning and investigation of chemical pesticides. Stenersen's concise and timely introduction to chemical pesticides describes these compounds according to their mode of action at the cellular and biochemical level.

Chemical Pesticides provides answers to questions such as why pesticides are toxic to the target organism and why pesticides are toxic to some organisms and not others. It describes how various poisons interfere with biochemical processes in organisms. The book also explores how resistance to pesticides develops, how resistance can be used to illustrate the theory of evolution, and how it can be used to produce herbicide-resistant crop plants. Legal matters and potential environmental problems are also discussed.

By providing an integrated, yet simple description of modern chemical pesticides, the author provides a relevant text for professionals and students in biological disciplines such as biochemistry, medicine, agriculture, and veterinary science.

Reviews

“The book extending over 276 pages, is structured in 10 chapters which all are reviewing the up-to-date researchers and findings that concern the mode of actions and toxicology of chemical pesticides. … is the unitary manner of treating the approached topics in every chapter aimed to five both general information as well as the up-to-date researchers and findings based on the recent literature. The book is useful to academicians, scientists, students, as well as industrials working in the field of pesticides.”

— Lecturer Adina Dunitrascu, Technical University ‘Gh. Asachi’ of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, in IPM – Iasi Polytechnic Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 1 / 4, March/December 2005

“Here is a very different and welcome text bringing a fresh and thoughtful approach to an increasingly urgent research topic. … Both translation and editing are good and retain the author’s lively, engaging style, together with the quirky humor which gifted teachers use so effectively to imprint student memory with essential facts … [T]he content makes the book easy to understand and assimilate. … [B]oth an essential fact-packed primer for ambitious biological discipline-oriented students and a copious reference source for progressive professionals.”

Occupational Safety and Health Journal, March 2005

“By providing an integrated, yet simple description of modern chemical pesticides, the author provides a relevant text for professionals and students in biological disciplines such as biochemistry, medicine, agriculture, and veterinary science.”

International Pest Control, Vol. 47, No. 2, March/April 2005

“This book provides answers to questions such as why pesticides are toxic to the target organism and why they are toxic to some organisms and not to others. This concise and timely introduction describes these compounds according to their mode of action at the cellular and biochemical level. It describes how various poisons interfere with biochemical processes in organisms … The book also explores how resistance to pesticides develops … . By providing an integrated, yet simple and easy-to-read, description of modern chemical pesticides, the author provides a relevant text for professionals and students in biological disciplines such as biochemistry, medicine, agriculture and veterinary science.”

International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 84, Nos. 14 & 15, Dec. 2004

“… useful as a starting point for queries regarding the mode of action and toxicology of pesticides.”

— Joanne Kilgour, BTS Newsletter, Winter 2004, Issue 25

“The author has provided a very useful text with a list of additional references that will enable further reading. The book is very reasonably priced and will be of interest to postgraduate students and professionals in a number of disciplines.”

— Peter Batten, BTS Newsletter, Winter 2004, Issue 25

“The informative book provides a review of toxicological and environmental problems of pesticides, without overemphasizing the benefits or problems of pesticide usage.”

Journal of Phytopathology, Vol. 153, 2005

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Motivation

Pesticides and Opinion

A Great Market

Nomenclature, Definitions and Terminology

Helpful Reading

Biochemistry and Cell Biology

General Toxicology

Insect Biochemistry, Plant Physiology, Neurophysiology

Pesticides

Side Effects of Pesticides

WHY IS A TOXICANT POISONOUS

Seven Routes to Death

How to Measure Toxicity

Endpoints

Dose and Effect

Dose and Response

LD50 and Related Parameters

Acute and Chronic Toxicity

Interactions

Mechanisms of Interactions

Examples

PESTICIDES INTERFERING WITH PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO ALL ORGANISMS

Pesticides that Disturb Energy Production

Anabolic and Catabolic Processes

Synthesis of Acetyl Coenzyme A and the Toxic Mechanism of Arsenic

The Citric Acid Cycle and Its Inhibitors

The Electron Transport Chain and Production of ATP

Inhibition of ATP Production

Herbicides that Inhibit Photosynthesis

Weak Organic Acids

Free Radical Generators

D1 – Blockers

Inhibitors of Carotene Synthesis

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase inhibitors

General SH-Reagents and Free Radical Generators

Mercury

Other Multisite Fungicides

Pesticides Interfering with Cell Division

Fungicides

Herbicides

Pesticides Inhibiting Enzymes in Nucleic Acid Synthesis

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND ITS TOXINS

The Mechanism of Action d-endotoxins

Biotechnology

Engineered Plants

Biology

Commercial Products

SPECIFIC ENZYME INHIBITORS

Inhibitors of Ergosterol Synthesis

Conclusions

Herbicides that Inhibit Synthesis of Amino Acids

Inhibitors of Chitin Synthesis

Insecticides

Fungicides

Inhibitors of Cholinesterase

Acetylcholinesterase

Organophosphates

Carbamates

Development of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides

Other Enzymes Inhibited by Organophosphates and Carbamates

The Butyrylcholinesterases

The Neurotoxic Target Enzyme (NTE)

Carboxylesterases

INTERFERENCE WITH SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN THE NERVES

Potency of Nerve Poisons

Selectivity

The Nerve and the Nerve Cell

Pesticides that Act on the Axon

Impulse Transmission along the Axon

Pyrethroids

DDT and its Analogues

Pesticides Acting on Synaptic Transmission

Inhibitory Synapses

The Cholinergic Synapses

Calcium Channels as Possible Targets for Insecticides

Summary

PESTICIDES THAT ACT AS SIGNAL MOLECULES

Insect Hormones

Insect Endocrinology

Juvenile Hormone

Ecdysone

Behaviour-Modifying Pesticides

Pheromones

Structure – Activity Relationships

Pheromones used as Pesticides and Lures

Plant Hormones

TRANSLOCATION AND DEGRADATION OF PESTICIDES

The Compartment Model

The Bioconcentration Factor

The Half-life

The Area under the Curve

Example

Degradation of Pesticides by Micro-organisms

Degradation by Adaption

Degradation by Co-metabolism

Kinetics of Degradation

Importance of Chemical Structure for Degradation

Examples

The Degraders

Soil Adsorption

Why are Chemicals Adsorbed?

Examples

Desorption

Evaporation

Example

Biotransformation in Animals

Oxidation

Epoxide Hydrolase

Glutathione Transferase

Hydrolases

Glucoronosyltransferase and Sulfotransferase

Stereospecific Biotransformation

Designing Pesticides that have Low Mammalian Toxicity

RESISTANCE TO PESTICIDES

Resistance is an Inevitable Result of Evolution

Questions about Resistance

Biochemical Mechanisms

Increased Detoxication

Insensitive Target Enzyme or Target Receptor Site

Resistance in Fungi

Atrazine Resistance and Plants made Resistant by Genetic Engineering

Resistance to Glyphosate

Resistance to older Biocides used as Pesticides

Resistance to the Third and Fourth Generation Pesticides

How to Delay Development of Resistance

Refuge Strategy

Mixing Pesticides with Different Modes of Action and Different Detoxication Patterns

Switching Life-stage Target

Increased Sensitivity in Resistant Pests

Inhibition of Detoxication Enzymes

Conclusions

PESTICIDES AS ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

Pesticides are Poisons

Pesticides are Xenobiotics

Various Types of Bias

Benchmark Values

Required Toxicological Tests for Official Approval of a Pesticide

Residue Analysis of Residues in Food and the Environment

Sampling

Sample preparation

Analysis

Pesticide Residues in Food

Toxicity Classification of Pesticides

Definition of ADI and NOEL and Tolerance Limits

Comparing Health Hazard of Pesticides with Other Toxicants Present in the Market Basket

Elixirs of Death

Nomenclature and Structure of Dioxins

Dioxins in Pesticides

Toxicology

The Target

Analysis

Angry Birdwatchers, Youth Criminals, and Impotent Rats

Clear Lake

Peregrine Falcons and Other Birds of Prey

Conclusions

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General