Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences  book cover
1st Edition

Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences

ISBN 9780849339349
Published October 1, 2007 by CRC Press
248 Pages 134 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Tackling environmental issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, water pollution, and soil contamination requires an understanding of the underlying science and chemistry of these processes in real-world systems and situations. Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences provides a student-friendly introduction to the basic chemistry used for the mitigation, remediation, and elimination of pollutants.

Written and organized in a style that is accessible to science as well as non-science majors, this textbook divides its content into four intuitive chapters: Fire, Earth, Water, and Air. The first chapter explains classical concepts in chemistry that occur in nature such as atomic and molecular structures, chemical bonding and reactions, states of matter, phase transitions, and radioactivity. Subsequent chapters focus on the chemistry relating to the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere—including the chemical aspects of soil, water, and air pollution, respectively.

Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences uses worked examples and case studies drawn from current applications along with clear diagrams and concise explanations to illustrate the relevance of chemistry to geosciences. In-text and end-of-chapter questions with complete solutions also help students gain confidence in applying concepts from this book towards solving current, real-world problems.

Table of Contents

* Self-Assessment Questions accompany nearly every section within the chapters; Answers are provided in the Final Chapter.
Atoms and Elements
The Structure of Atoms
The Origin of the Elements
The Periodic Table
Electrons and Electron Orbitals
Radiometric Dating Methods
States of Matter
Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams
Pure Substances, Compounds, and Mixtures
Units of Measurement
SI and Non-SI Units
Scientific Notation and SI Prefixes
Concentrations and Solutions
Chemical Bonding
Covalent Bonding
Cations, Anions, and Ionic Bonding
Metallic Bonding
Electronegativity, Polar Bonds, and Hydrogen Bonding
Chemical Structures
Structures of Organic Compounds
Three-Dimensional Structures, Chirality, and Optical Isomers
Structures of Molecular Inorganic Compounds
Structures of Extended Networks
Chemical Reactions and Equilibria
Chemical Reactions
The Energy of Chemical Reactions
Chemical Equilibria and Le Chatelier’s Principle
Formation of the Earth
The Structure of the Earth
The Structures of Silicate Minerals
Silicates Formed from Isolated Tetrahedra — Orthosilicates
Single-Chain Silicates — Pyroxenes
Double-Chain Silicates — Amphiboles
Sheet Silicates — Micas, Clays, and Talc
Framework or Tectosilicates — Silica, Feldspars, and Zeolites
Igneous Rocks
The Composition of Igneous Rocks
Crystallisation of Igneous Rocks
Phase Diagrams
Trace Elements in Igneous Rocks
Mineral Stability
Sedimentary Rocks
Siliciclastic Rocks
The Mineral Composition of Sedimentary Rocks
The Chemical Composition of Sedimentary Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphism by Recrystallization
Metamorphism and Chemical Reactions
Biological Reactions
Physical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
Biological Weathering
The Chemistry of the Soil
Soil Organic Matter
Ion Exchange and Soil pH
Soil Pollution
The Properties of Water
The Phase Diagram of Water
Water and Hydrogen Bonding
Water and Heat
Water as a Solvent
The Water Cycle
Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale
Acids and Bases
The Relative Strength of Acids and Bases
Strong Acids and Bases
Weak Acids and Bases
The Self-Ionisation of Water
The pH Scale
Acid–Base Titrations
Buffer Solutions
Ions in Solution
The Solvation of Ions
Sparingly Soluble Salts and Solubility Products
The Carbonate System
Hardness of Water
The Chemistry of Seawater
Redox Chemistry
Oxidation, Reduction, and Oxidation States
Redox Potentials and Stability Field Diagrams
The Redox Chemistry of Nitrogen
Colloids and Suspended Particles
Water Pollution
Heavy Metals
Nutrients and Eutrophication
Organic Pollutants
Marine Oil Pollution
The Structure of the Atmosphere
Evolution and Composition of the Atmosphere
Biogeochemical cycles
The Carbon Cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
The Sulfur Cycle
Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
The Ozone Layer
Ozone Formation and UV Protection
Ozone Depletion
Air Pollution
The Key Pollutants
Urban Smog
Dispersal of Pollutants
Indoor Air Quality

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"The book has been written with a refreshing degree of elan and didactic skill, and on the whole it succeeds well in its aim . . ."

– Dieter Lenoir, Institut für Ökologische Chemie, in Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2008, Vol. 47, No. 31

". . . the work is valuable for its informational content and readable style for undergraduate coursework in chemistry, environmental, and earth sciences . . . Summing Up: Recommended."

– D. H. Stedman, University of Denver, in Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, May 2008, Vol. 45, No. 9

"Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences is an original chemistry text book in the sense that it provides a friendly introduction to the basic chemistry concepts from the perspective of those environmental problems . . . The book is easy to read and fills a gap for undergraduate students of environmental and earth sciences, physical geography and geology."

– J. Albaigés, CID-CSIC, in International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, April 2008, Vol. 88, No. 5

"The book helps the environmental geochemists and engineers in their study of environmental science or earth science.  It provides a student-friendly introduction to the basic chemistry used for the mitigation, remediation, and elimination of pollutants."

- Fakhry A. Assaad, Environ Geol (2008) Vol. 54, p.1803