2nd Edition

Chemistry for the Life Sciences

    280 Pages 166 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    280 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Presents short topics tied to numerical or conceptual ideas, reinforced with worked examples and questions

    Retaining the user-friendly style of the first edition, this text is designed to eliminate the knowledge gap for those life sciences students who have not studied chemistry at an advanced level. It contains new chapters on –

    ·         Water, covering the mole concept and colloids

    ·         Gases, discussing pressure, gas laws, partial pressure, solubility of gases, and diffusion

    ·         Metals in biology, including properties, oxygen carriers, biocatalysis, charge carriers, and toxicity

    The authors divide their analysis of carbon compounds into two chapters. One focuses exclusively on aliphatic carbon compounds, while the other provides a greatly expanded exploration of aromatic carbon compounds, isomerism, amines and amino acids, including benzene, aromaticity, types of isomerism, and absolute configuration. With a current examination of organic and biological reactions, this instructional volume also features end-of-chapter questions and provides a solutions manual for qualified instructors.

    Key Features:

  • Focuses on the particular aspects of chemistry that underpin biochemical and biomedical studies
  • Includes new chapters on emerging topics of interest
  • Offers a sequence of short topics with numerical or conceptual ideas supported by worked examples and questions within the text
  • Provides a solutions manual for qualified instructors
  • Elements, Atoms, and Electrons

    Matter and Elements


    Atomic Structure


    The Periodic Table

    Electron Structure of Atoms


    Covalent Bonding and Molecules

    Interactions between Atoms

    Covalent Bonds Are Formed by Sharing Outer Electrons

    Formulae of Compounds

    Covalent Bonds Formed by Combining Atomic Orbitals

    Single Overlap, the Sigma-Bond

    Double Overlap, the Pi-Bond

    Molecules with s- and p-Bonds

    Hybrid Molecular Orbitals


    Forces Within and Between Molecules

    Ionic Bonding

    Polar Covalent Bonds

    Dipole–Dipole Forces

    The Hydrogen Bond

    van der Waals Forces

    The Hydrophobic Effect

    Coordinate Bonds


    Chemical Reactions

    Rates of Reaction

    Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction

    Rate Equations

    Integrated Forms of Rate Equations

    Zero-Order Reactions

    Integrated Form of the Zero-Order Rate Equation

    First-Order Reactions

    The Integrated Form of the First-Order Rate Equation

    Second-Order Reactions

    Integrated Forms of Second-Order Rate Equations

    Pseudo-First-Order Reactions

    Reversible Reactions




    The Water Molecule




    The Mole Concept

    Calculating Molar Masses


    Colloidal Solutions

    Diffusion and Osmosis


    Acids, Bases, and Buffers

    Ionisation of Water

    The Hydrogen Ion

    Acids and Bases

    Strong Acids and Strong Bases

    Weak Acids and Weak Bases

    Ka and Kb

    Relationship between Ka and Kb

    pH, pOH, pKw, pKa, pKb

    Solutions of Weak Acids and Bases

    Salts and Salt Hydrolysis

    Buffer Systems

    Calculating the pH Values of Buffers






    Measurement of Pressure

    Ideal Gas Laws

    Partial Pressures

    Solubility of Gases

    Diffusion in Gases


    Aliphatic Carbon Compounds

    Simple Molecules Containing Carbon

    Organic Compounds

    Alkanes and Alkyl Groups




    Aldehydes and Ketones

    Carboxylic Acids



    Lipids, Sugars, and Linkages between Reactive Groups

    Fatty Acids


    Glycerol Esters

    Hemiacetals and Hemiketals

    Simple Sugars

    Chirality in Simple Sugars

    Straight-Chain Sugars Spontaneously Form Rings

    Sugar Hydroxyls Can Be Chemically Modified

    Sugars Are Joined Together by Glycosidic Bonds


    Aromatic Carbon Compounds and Isomerism


    Bioactive Aromatic Compounds


    Structural Isomerism

    Chain, Positional, and Functional Group Isomerism



    Geometrical Isomerism

    Optical Isomerism


    Organic and Biological Reaction Mechanisms

    Reactive Sites and Functional Groups

    Describing Reaction Mechanisms

    Bimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution

    Electrophilic Addition to a Nonpolar Double Bond

    Elimination to Form an Alkene

    Nucleophilic Addition to a Polar Double Bond

    Free Radical Reactions

    Carbon–Carbon Bond Formation in Biosynthesis


    Sulphur and Phosphorus

    The Electron-Shell Structure and Valency of Phosphorus and Sulphur


    The Thiol Group and Thiol Esters

    Phosphate, Pyrophosphate, and Polyphosphate

    Phosphate Esters

    The Role of Phosphate Esters and ATP in Cellular Energy Metabolism


    Oxidation and Reduction Reactions

    Oxidation Is Linked to Reduction

    The Chemical Changes in the REDOX Process

    Splitting REDOX Reactions

    Standardising REDOX Half-Reactions

    Predicting Electron Flow

    Free Energy and Standard Reduction Potentials

    Redox Reactions and Nonstandard Conditions


    Metals in Biology

    General Properties of Metals in Biology

    Some Properties of Alkali Metals

    The Alkaline Earth Metals

    Transition Metals

    Role of Metal as Oxygen Carrier

    Metals Facilitate Biocatalysis

    The Role of Metal Ions as Charge Carriers

    The Toxicity of Metals



    The First Law of Thermodynamics

    Units of Energy

    Measurement of Energy

    Internal Energy, U, and Enthalpy, H


    Hess’s Law

    Enthalpies of Formation

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Free Energy

    Interaction of DeltaH with TDeltaS


    Reactions and Equilibrium

    DeltaG and Equilibrium

    Activation Energy

    The Effect of the Temperature on Reaction Rate

    The Arrhenius Equation


    Enzyme Catalysis

    Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions

    Finding Vmax and KM



    Light Is Part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Wavelength and Frequency

    The Quantum Theory of Light

    The Absorption of Light

    The Relationship between Light Absorption and Concentration

    The Spectrophotometer

    The Fate of Absorbed Light


    Appendix: Derivations of Equations



    Raul Sutton