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2nd Edition

Chemistry for the Life Sciences





ISBN 9781420069358
Published November 20, 2008 by CRC Press
280 Pages 166 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Presents short topics tied to numerical or conceptual ideas, reinforced with worked examples and questions

Retaining the user-friendly style of the first edition, this text is designed to eliminate the knowledge gap for those life sciences students who have not studied chemistry at an advanced level. It contains new chapters on –

·         Water, covering the mole concept and colloids

·         Gases, discussing pressure, gas laws, partial pressure, solubility of gases, and diffusion

·         Metals in biology, including properties, oxygen carriers, biocatalysis, charge carriers, and toxicity

The authors divide their analysis of carbon compounds into two chapters. One focuses exclusively on aliphatic carbon compounds, while the other provides a greatly expanded exploration of aromatic carbon compounds, isomerism, amines and amino acids, including benzene, aromaticity, types of isomerism, and absolute configuration. With a current examination of organic and biological reactions, this instructional volume also features end-of-chapter questions and provides a solutions manual for qualified instructors.

Key Features:

  • Focuses on the particular aspects of chemistry that underpin biochemical and biomedical studies
  • Includes new chapters on emerging topics of interest
  • Offers a sequence of short topics with numerical or conceptual ideas supported by worked examples and questions within the text
  • Provides a solutions manual for qualified instructors
  • Table of Contents

    Elements, Atoms, and Electrons

    Matter and Elements

    Atoms

    Atomic Structure

    Isotopes

    The Periodic Table

    Electron Structure of Atoms

     

    Covalent Bonding and Molecules

    Interactions between Atoms

    Covalent Bonds Are Formed by Sharing Outer Electrons

    Formulae of Compounds

    Covalent Bonds Formed by Combining Atomic Orbitals

    Single Overlap, the Sigma-Bond

    Double Overlap, the Pi-Bond

    Molecules with s- and p-Bonds

    Hybrid Molecular Orbitals

     

    Forces Within and Between Molecules

    Ionic Bonding

    Polar Covalent Bonds

    Dipole–Dipole Forces

    The Hydrogen Bond

    van der Waals Forces

    The Hydrophobic Effect

    Coordinate Bonds

     

    Chemical Reactions

    Rates of Reaction

    Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction

    Rate Equations

    Integrated Forms of Rate Equations

    Zero-Order Reactions

    Integrated Form of the Zero-Order Rate Equation

    First-Order Reactions

    The Integrated Form of the First-Order Rate Equation

    Second-Order Reactions

    Integrated Forms of Second-Order Rate Equations

    Pseudo-First-Order Reactions

    Reversible Reactions

    Equilibrium

     

    Water

    The Water Molecule

    Ice

    Water

    Solutions

    The Mole Concept

    Calculating Molar Masses

    Molarity

    Colloidal Solutions

    Diffusion and Osmosis

     

    Acids, Bases, and Buffers

    Ionisation of Water

    The Hydrogen Ion

    Acids and Bases

    Strong Acids and Strong Bases

    Weak Acids and Weak Bases

    Ka and Kb

    Relationship between Ka and Kb

    pH, pOH, pKw, pKa, pKb

    Solutions of Weak Acids and Bases

    Salts and Salt Hydrolysis

    Buffer Systems

    Calculating the pH Values of Buffers

    Indicators

    Titrations

     

    Gases

    Pressure

    Measurement of Pressure

    Ideal Gas Laws

    Partial Pressures

    Solubility of Gases

    Diffusion in Gases

     

    Aliphatic Carbon Compounds

    Simple Molecules Containing Carbon

    Organic Compounds

    Alkanes and Alkyl Groups

    Alkenes

    Alcohols

    Thiols

    Aldehydes and Ketones

    Carboxylic Acids

    Amines

     

    Lipids, Sugars, and Linkages between Reactive Groups

    Fatty Acids

    Esters

    Glycerol Esters

    Hemiacetals and Hemiketals

    Simple Sugars

    Chirality in Simple Sugars

    Straight-Chain Sugars Spontaneously Form Rings

    Sugar Hydroxyls Can Be Chemically Modified

    Sugars Are Joined Together by Glycosidic Bonds

     

    Aromatic Carbon Compounds and Isomerism

    Benzene

    Bioactive Aromatic Compounds

    Isomerism

    Structural Isomerism

    Chain, Positional, and Functional Group Isomerism

    Tautomerism

    Stereoisomerism

    Geometrical Isomerism

    Optical Isomerism

     

    Organic and Biological Reaction Mechanisms

    Reactive Sites and Functional Groups

    Describing Reaction Mechanisms

    Bimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution

    Electrophilic Addition to a Nonpolar Double Bond

    Elimination to Form an Alkene

    Nucleophilic Addition to a Polar Double Bond

    Free Radical Reactions

    Carbon–Carbon Bond Formation in Biosynthesis

     

    Sulphur and Phosphorus

    The Electron-Shell Structure and Valency of Phosphorus and Sulphur

    Sulphur

    The Thiol Group and Thiol Esters

    Phosphate, Pyrophosphate, and Polyphosphate

    Phosphate Esters

    The Role of Phosphate Esters and ATP in Cellular Energy Metabolism

     

    Oxidation and Reduction Reactions

    Oxidation Is Linked to Reduction

    The Chemical Changes in the REDOX Process

    Splitting REDOX Reactions

    Standardising REDOX Half-Reactions

    Predicting Electron Flow

    Free Energy and Standard Reduction Potentials

    Redox Reactions and Nonstandard Conditions

     

    Metals in Biology

    General Properties of Metals in Biology

    Some Properties of Alkali Metals

    The Alkaline Earth Metals

    Transition Metals

    Role of Metal as Oxygen Carrier

    Metals Facilitate Biocatalysis

    The Role of Metal Ions as Charge Carriers

    The Toxicity of Metals

     

    Energy

    The First Law of Thermodynamics

    Units of Energy

    Measurement of Energy

    Internal Energy, U, and Enthalpy, H

    Calorimetry

    Hess’s Law

    Enthalpies of Formation

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Free Energy

    Interaction of DeltaH with TDeltaS

     

    Reactions and Equilibrium

    DeltaG and Equilibrium

    Activation Energy

    The Effect of the Temperature on Reaction Rate

    The Arrhenius Equation

    Catalysis

    Enzyme Catalysis

    Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions

    Finding Vmax and KM

     

    Light

    Light Is Part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Wavelength and Frequency

    The Quantum Theory of Light

    The Absorption of Light

    The Relationship between Light Absorption and Concentration

    The Spectrophotometer

    The Fate of Absorbed Light

     

    Appendix: Derivations of Equations

    Index

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