2nd Edition

Chemistry of Biomolecules, Second Edition

By S. P. Bhutani Copyright 2020
    476 Pages
    by CRC Press

    474 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Biomolecules are molecules that are involved in the maintenance and metabolic processes of all living organisms. This fully revised second edition offers extensive coverage of important biomolecules from an organic chemistry point of view. The author discusses carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, proteins, enzymes, pyrimidines, purines, nucleic acids, terpenoids, and lipids. The various topics are described in simple, lucid language and explain the mechanisms of the reactions wherever required. Ideal for upper level undergraduates, graduates and researchers.


    • The author discusses the basic organic chemistry of the main families of biomolecules
    • Gives comprehensive information on biogenic substances
    • Covers a vast range of topics including nucleic acids, enzymes and lipids
    • Includes alkaloids and terpenoids
    • This second edition will now appeal to upper level undergraduates as well as graduates


    1. Carbohydrates
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Occurrence and Biological Importance
    1.3 Definitions
    1.4 Formation of Carbohydrates in Plants
    1.5 Classification of Carbohydrates 
    1.6 Configurational Relationship of Monosaccharides
    1.7 Epimers 
    1.8 Structure and Properties of D-Glucose 
    1.9 Determination of the Ring Size of Glucose 
    1.10 Mutarotation 
    1.11 Osazone Formation 
    1.12 Ketohexoses 
    1.13 Structure of D(–)-Fructose 
    1.14 Reactions of Monosaccharides 
    1.15 Lengthening the Carbon Chain of Aldoses–The Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis 
    1.16 Shortening the Carbon Chain of Aldoses 
    1.17 Interconversions 
    1.18 Maltose 
    1.19 Lactose 
    1.20 Cellobiose 
    1.21 Sucrose 
    1.22 Aldopentoses—The Sugars of Nucleic Acids 
    1.23 Polysaccharides 
    1.24 Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates—The Calvin Cycle 
    1.25 Natural Products Derived from Carbohydrates 

    2. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    2.1 Introduction 
    2.2 Amino Acids – The Building Blocks of Proteins 
    2.3 Classification of Amino Acids 
    2.4 The Essential Amino Acids 
    2.5 Stereochemistry of α-Amino Acids 
    2.6 Synthesis of α-Amino Acids 
    2.7 Resolution of Racemic Mixtures of Amino Acids 
    2.8 Stereoselective Synthesis of Amino Acids 
    2.9 Biosynthesis Amino Acids
    2.10 Amino Acids as Dipolar ions 
    2.11 Amino Acids as Acids and Bases
    2.12 Isoelectric Point
    2.13 Separation of Amino Acids
    2.14 Chemical Reactions of Amino Acids
    2.15 Polypeptides
    2.16 Synthesis of Peptides
    2.17 Methods of Peptide Synthesis (Coupling Methods)
    2.18 Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis
    2.19 Determination of Primary Structure of Peptides
    2.20 Identification of the N-Terminal Amino Acid (End Group Analysis) 
    2.21 Identification of the C-Terminal Amino Acid 
    2.22 Use of Enzymes
    2.23 Time Course Analysis
    2.24 Some interesting peptides
    2.25 Importance and Biological functions of Proteins and polypeptides 
    2.26 Classification of Proteins 
    2.27 Molecular Shape of Proteins
    2.28 Factors that Influence Molecular Shape
    2.29 Some Features of Fibrous Proteins
    2.30 Some Features of Globular Proteins
    2.31 Structure of Proteins
    2.32 Denaturation of Proteins 

    3. Enzymes 
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes 
    3.3 Characteristics of Enzymes 
    3.4 Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity 
    3.5 Cofactors–Coenzymes
    3.6 Structure and Functions of Various Coenzymes
    3.7 Enzyme Inhibitors
    3.8 Mechanism of Enzyme Catalysis
    3.9 How do Substrates Bind to Enzymes
    3.10 Alcholic Fermentation
    3.11 Glycolysis 
    3.12 Citric Acid Cycle
    3.13 Biocatalysis–Importance in Green Chemistry and the Chemical Industry

    4. Pyrimidines, Purines, and Nucleic Acids
    4.1 Introduction and Biological Importance of Nucleic Acids
    4.2 Pyrimidine
    4.3 Uracil 
    4.4 Thymine (5-Methyluracil) 
    4.5 Cytosine 
    4.6 Purines 
    4.7 Adenine 
    4.8 Guanine
    4.9 Ureides 
    4.10 Uric Acid 
    4.11 Caffeine 
    4.12 Nucleosides 
    4.13 Nucleotides 
    4.14 Polynucleotides
    4.15 The Nucleic Acids 
    4.16 Structure of DNA (The Double Helix)
    4.17 Conformational Variations in DNA (Forms of DNA)
    4.18 Denaturation and Renaturation of DNA
    4.19 Replication of DNA 
    4.20 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    4.21 Principal Kinds of RNAs and Their Structures
    4.22 The Genetic Code
    4.23 Transcription
    4.24 Translation
    4.25 Gene Therapy

    5. Lipids-Oils and Fats
    5.1 What are Lipids?
    5.2 Classification of Lipids—Types of Lipids
    5.3 Biological Functions of Lipids
    5.4 Oils and Fats as Simple Lipids
    5.5 Fatty Acids in Fats and Oils
    5.6 Fatty Acid Composition in Some Fats and Oils
    5.7 What are Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids?
    5.8 Biological Role of Fatty Acids
    5.9 Trans Fats and their Effect
    5.10 Extraction of Oils and Fats
    5.11 Refining of Oils and Fats
    5.12 Hydrogenation
    5.13 Identification of Fats and Oils
    5.14 Flavour Changes in Oils and Fats 
    5.15 Cholesterol 
    5.16 Importance of Triglycerides
    5.17 Lipid Membranes 
    5.18 Liposomes

    6. Terpenoids
    6.1 Introduction–The Essential Oils
    6.2 Occurrence in Nature
    6.3 Isoprene Rule 
    6.4 Classification of Terpenoids
    6.5 Isolation From Natural Sources 
    6.6 Citral 
    6.7 Dipentene
    6.8 Geraniol 
    6.9 a-Terpineol 
    6.10 Menthol 
    6.11 a-Pinene 
    6.12 Camphor 
    6.13 Diterpenoids – Phytol 
    6.14 Triterpenoids – Squalene 
    6.15 Tetraterpenoids–Carotenoids 
    6.16 b-Carotene
    6.17 a-Carotene
    6.18 Lycopene
    6.19 g-carotene

    7. Alkaloids 
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Occurrence in Nature
    7.3 Extraction of Alkaloids From Plants
    7.4 General Properties of Alkaloids
    7.5 Hofmann’s Exhaustive Methylation 
    7.6 Emde Modification 
    7.7 Classification Of Alkaloids 
    7.8 Importance and Physiological Action of Alkaloids 
    7.9 Conine
    7.10 Nicotine 
    7.11 Hygrine 
    7.12 Atropine 
    7.13 Cocaine 
    7.14 Quinine 
    7.15 Morphine 
    7.16 Medicinal Importance of Reserpine 



    Dr SP Bhutani, a recipient of the Prof. R.P. Mitra Gold Medal in MSc. from the University of Delhi, completed his Ph.D in 1968 in Chemistry of Natural Products from University of Delhi. Dr Bhutani was the Research Officer for 2 years in the Composite Drug Research Scheme under Prof. T.R.Seshadri, FRS at the Department of Chemistry (University Of Delhi). Dr. Bhutani has taught Organic Chemistry to B.Sc., General and Honours classes at Rajdhani College, University of Delhi for more than 37 years. He has authored several books on Organic Chemistry for graduate students. He has also to his credit numerous research publications.