This book seeks to explore Nordic approaches to China and the idea of sub-regional diplomacy.

    China’s multi-tiered approach to Europe can be seen vividly in the Nordic sub-region, which has been engaging Beijing through a variety of different means corresponding to the political and economic structures found in the Nordic states. In some areas, a specific Nordic approach can be observed, including areas related to economic cooperation, Arctic diplomacy, and institution-building. However, the Nordic states also have widely differing historical experiences with China leading up to the present day. Each of the Nordic states has also had to balance their China relations with those of the EU and other major players such as the United States. With case studies on the EU, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, this volume addresses the question of a specifically Nordic approach to Chinese relations. It explores not only the contributions of the Nordics to China relations, but also adds to the greater study of sub-regional approaches to Chinese diplomacy at a time when Sino-European relations are arguably at their most complex.

    This book will be of much interest to students of Chinese politics, Nordic politics, diplomacy and IR in general.

    Introduction: Quintet Out of Tune? China’s Bilateral Relations with the Nordic States, Bjørnar Sverdrup-Thygeson and Jerker Hellström

    1. China’s Belt and Road Initiative and EU-China Relations, William A. Callahan

    2. Denmark’s Relationship with China: An odd couple’s quest for bilateral harmony, Andreas Bøje Forsby

    3. Finland and China: Pragmatism Prevails, Jyrki Kallio

    4. Iceland’s ‘Small State’ Economic Diplomacy with China, Marc Lanteigne

    5. The Norway-China Relationship: For Better, For Worse, For Richer, For Poorer, Bjørnar Sverdrup-Thygeson

    6. Walking a tightrope: Sweden’s relations with China, Göran Leijonhufvud

    Conclusion: Looking for the North Star: Sino-Nordic Sub-Regional Diplomacy and the ‘5+1’ Model, Ulf Sverdrup and Marc Lanteigne


    Bjørnar Sverdrup-Thygeson is Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI).

    Wrenn Yennie Lindgren is Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI).

    Marc Lanteigne is Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Defence and Security Studies at Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand. He is author of Chinese Foreign Policy: An Introduction, third edition (Routledge, 2016).