First Published in 2004. Volume II provides the hard facts and the history behind the headlines; significant 20th-century events in the evolution of all aspects of business and commerce are described in chronologically-arranged articles. The text of each article is divided into two sections: Summary of the Event describes the event itself and the circumstances leading up to it, and Impact of the Event analyzes the influence of the event on the evolution of business practice or on a major industry in both the short and long terms. Each article concludes with a fully annotated Bibliography.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 The European Common Market is Established; Chapter 2 Ford Introduces the Edsel; Chapter 3 The AFL-CIO Expels the Teamsters Union; Chapter 4 Congress Sets Standards for Chemical Additives in Food; Chapter 5 The Hula Hoop is Marketed; Chapter 6 Congress Gives Tax Breaks to Financiers of Small Businesses; Chapter 7 The Boeing 707 Begins Commercial Service; Chapter 8 Cuba Begins Expropriating Foreign Property; Chapter 9 The Landrum-Griffin Act Targets Union Corruption; Chapter 10 Firms Begin Replacing Skilled Laborers with Automatic Tools; Chapter 11 New Rice and Wheat Strains Launch the Green Revolution; Chapter 12 The U.S. Service Economy Emerges; Chapter 13 Berry Gordy, Jr., Founds Motown Records; Chapter 14 Radio’s Payola Scandal Leads to Congressional Action; Chapter 15 Opec Meets For the First Time; Chapter 16 The Negotiable Certificate of Deposit is Introduced; Chapter 17 The Supreme Court Orders Du Pont to Disburse Gm Holdings; Chapter 18 The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Forms; Chapter 19 The Agency For International Development is Established; Chapter 20 Thalidomide Use Prompts Passage of the Kefauver-Harris Amendment; Chapter 21 Congress Passes The Equal Pay Act; Chapter 22 Studebaker Announces Plans to Abandon U.S. Auto Production; Chapter 23 GPU Announces Plans For A Commercial Nuclear Reactor; Chapter 24 Sara Lee Opens An Automated Factory; Chapter 25 Frei “Chileanizes” Chile’s Copper Industry; Chapter 26 Hoffa Negotiates a National Trucking Agreement; Chapter 27 The Kennedy-Johnson Tax Cuts Stimulate The U.S. Economy; Chapter 28 Ford Introduces The Mustang; Chapter 29 The Civil Rights Act Prohibits Discrimination in Employment; Chapter 30 The United States Enacts the Interest Equalization Tax; Chapter 31 American and Mexican Companies form Maquiladoras; Chapter 32 Johnson Signs the Medicare and Medicaid Amendments; Chapter 33 Congress Limits the Use of Billboards; Chapter 34 The United States Announces Plans for Immigration Reform; Chapter 35 Congress Passes the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act; Chapter 36 Nader’s Unsafe at any Speed Launches a Consumer Movement; Chapter 37 The Asian Development Bank is Chartered; Chapter 38 China Begins the Cultural Revolution; Chapter 39 Cuba Signs a Commercial Agreement with the Soviet Union; Chapter 40 Fiat Plans to Build a Factory in the Soviet Union; Chapter 41 The NFL-AFL Merger Creates a Sports-Industry Giant; Chapter 42 A European Consortium Plans the Airbus; Chapter 43 The Supreme Court Rules Against a Procter & Gamble Merger; Chapter 44 McDonnell aircraft and douglas Aircraft Merge; Chapter 45 The Eec Adopts A Common Agricultural Policy; Chapter 46 At&T Is Ordered To Reduce Charges; Chapter 47 Atlantic Richfield Discovers Oil At Prudhoe Bay, Alaska; Chapter 48 Supertankers Begin Transporting Oil; Chapter 49 Johnson Restricts Direct Foreign Investment; Chapter 50 British Leyland Motor Corporation forms by merger; Chapter 51 French Workers Engage In A National Strike; Chapter 52 Congress Passes The Consumer Credit Protection Act; Chapter 53 The Supreme Court Upholds A Ban On Housing Discrimination; Chapter 54 The Wholesome Poultry Products Act Is Passed; Chapter 55 An Offshore Oil Well Blows Out Near Santabarbara, California; Chapter 56 The Saturday Evening Post Publishes Its Final Issue; Chapter 57 Congress Begins Hearings On Cost Overruns For The C-5A Galaxy; Chapter 58 The United States Bans Cyclamates From Consumer Markets; Chapter 59 The Banning Of Ddt Signals New Environmental Awareness; Chapter 60 Denim Jeans Become Accepted as Fashion; Chapter 61 Drive-Through Services Proliferate; Chapter 62 The Federal Trade Commission Endorses Comparative Advertising; Chapter 63 Health Consciousness Creates Huge New Markets; Chapter 64 Retailers Begin Using High Technology to Control Shrinkage; Chapter 65 The U.S. Government Reforms Child Product Safety Lwas; Chapter 66 Amtrak Takes Over Most U.S. Intercity Train Traffic; Chapter 67 Curt Flood Tests Baseball’s Reserve Clause; Chapter 68 The U.S. Government Bans Cigarette Ads on Broadcast Media; Chapter 69 Congress Passes the Rico Act; Chapter 70 Congress Passes the Fair Credit Reporting Act; Chapter 71 The Environmental Protection Agency is Created; Chapter 72 Nixon Signs the Occupational Safety and Health Act; Chapter 73 New York State Allows Off-Track Betting; Chapter 74 Nixon Removes An Embargo on Trade With China; Chapter 75 The United States Suffers its First Trade Deficit Since 1888; Chapter 76 Nixon’s Anti-Inflation Program Shocks Worldwide Markets; Chapter 77 The Supreme Court Orders the End of Discrimination in Hiring; Chapter 78 The U.S. Advertising Industry Organizes Self-Regulation; Chapter 79 An Independent Agency Takes Over U.S. Postal Service; Chapter 80 Professional Baseball Players go on Strike; Chapter 81 The Pocket Calculator is Marketed; Chapter 82 Nixon Signs the Consumer Product Safety act; Chapter 83 Itt Actions Cause Suspicion of Involvement in a Chilean Coup; Chapter 84 Iran Announces Nationalization of Foreign Oil Interests; Chapter 85 Federal Express Begins Operations; Chapter 86 Arab Oil Producers Curtail Oil Shipments to Industrial States; Chapter 87 West Germany Bans Immigration of Workers From Outside the EEC; Chapter 88 The United States Plans to Cut Dependence on Foreign Oil; Chapter 89 The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 is Passed; Chapter 90 Congress Creates the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; Chapter 91 Sony Introduces the Betamax; Chapter 92 Fred Silverman Rescues Abc Television’s Ratings; Chapter 93 Congress Passes the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act; Chapter 94 The Economic Community of West African States Forms; Chapter 95 Congress Prohibits Discrimination In The Granting Of Credit; Chapter 96 Atlantic City Legalizes Casino Gambling; Chapter 97 The Concorde Flies Passengers At Supersonic Speeds; Chapter 98 Jobs And Wozniak Found Apple Computer; Chapter 99 Genentechis Founded; Chapter 100 Price Club Introduces The Warehouse Club Concept; Chapter 101 The 1976 Copyright Act Reflects Technological Change; Chapter 102 Sears Agrees to an Ftc Order Banning Bait-And-Switch Tactics; Chapter 103 Murdoch Extends His Media Empire to the United States; Chapter 104 Kohlberg Kravis Roberts Pioneers the Leveraged Buyout; Chapter 105 At&T and Gte Install Fiber-Optic Telephone Systems; Chapter 106 The Alaskan Oil Pipeline Opens; Chapter 107 The Ftc Conducts Hearings on Ads Aimed at Children; Chapter 108 Volkswagen Opens the First Foreign-Owned U.S. Auto Plant; Chapter 109 Trigger Prices Protect the U.S. Steel Industry; Chapter 110 Carter Signs the Airline Deregulation Act; Chapter 111 The Pregnancy Discrimination Act Extends Employment Rights; Chapter 112 Visicalc Spreadsheet Software is Marketed; Chapter 113 The Three Mile Island Accident Prompts Reforms in Nuclear Power; Chapter 114 Carter Orders Deregulation of Oil Prices; Chapter 115 The Supreme Court Rules on Affirmative Action Programs; Chapter 116 Sony Introduces the Walkman; Chapter 117 American Firms Adopt Japanese Manufacturing Techniques; Chapter 118 Cad/Cam Revolutionizes Engineering and Manufacturing; Chapter 119 Defense Cutbacks Devastate the U.S. Aerospace Industry; Chapter 120 Electronic Technology Creates the Possibility of Telecommuting; Chapter 121 U.S. Regional Branch Banking is Approved; Chapter 122 Video Rental Outlets Gain Popularity; Chapter 123 Japan Becomes The World’S Largest Automobile Producer; Chapter 124 Congress Deregulates Banks and Savings and Loans; Chapter 125 The Loan Guarantee Act Saves Chrysler; Chapter 126 The Cable News Network Debuts; Chapter 127 The Supreme Court Rules On Water Rights; Chapter 128 The Supreme Court Rules That Life Forms Can Be Patented; Chapter 129 Reagan Promotes Supply-Side Economics; Chapter 130 Federal Regulators Authorize Adjustable-Rate Mortgages; Chapter 131 French Voters Elect Mitterrand; Chapter 132 The World Health Organization Condemns Use Of Infant Formula; Chapter 133 Air Traffic Controllers of Patco Declare a Strike; Chapter 134 IBM Introduces Its Personal Computer; Chapter 135 Tom Peters Gains Prominence as a Writer on Management; Chapter 136 AT&T Agrees to be Broken Upas Part of an Antitrust Settlement; Chapter 137 Braniff International Suspends Flight Operations; Chapter 138 Great Britain Announces Plans to Privatize British Telecom; Chapter 139 Seven People Die After Taking Cyanide-Laced Tylenol; Chapter 140 Usa Today is Launched; Chapter 141 Compact Discs Reach the Market; Chapter 142 Employees buy Weirton Steel Works; Chapter 143 The Payment-in-Kind Program Pays U.S. Farmers not to Plant; Chapter 144 Continental Airlines Declares Bankruptcy; Chapter 145 The U.S. Government Bails out Continental Illinois Bank; Chapter 146 Pennzoil Sues Texaco for Interfering in Getty Oil Deal; Chapter 147 Firefighters V. Stotts Upholds Seniority Systems; Chapter 148 Great Britain and China Agree on Control of Hong Kong; Chapter 149 Toxic Gas Leaks from a Union Carbide Plant in Bhopal, India; Chapter 150 Yugo Begins Selling Cars in the United States; Chapter 151 Coca-Cola Introduces a New Formula; Chapter 152 Home Shopping Service is Offered on Cable Television; Chapter 153 The Supreme Court Upholds Quotas as a Remedy for Discrimination; Chapter 154 Insider Trading Scandals Mar the Emerging Junk Bond Market; Chapter 155 The Fox Television Network goes on the Air; Chapter 156 The Immigration Reform and Control Act is Signed into Law; Chapter 157 The Boston Celtics Sell Shares in the Team; Chapter 158 Vons Opens its First Tianguis Marketplace; Chapter 159 The U.S. Government Institutes the Baldrige Award; Chapter 160 The U.S. Stock Market Crashes on 1987’s “Black Monday”; Chapter 161 Drexel and Michael Milken are Charged with Insider Trading; Chapter 162 The Recruit Scandal Surfaces in Japan; Chapter 163 Patent Protection is Granted on Genetically Engineered Mice; Chapter 164 R. J. Reynolds Introduces Premier, A Smokeless Cigarette; Chapter 165 Mexico Renegotiates Debt to U.S. Banks; Chapter 166 The United States Bans Chilean Fruit after Cyanide Scare; Chapter 167 Bush Responds to the Savings and Loan Crisis; Chapter 168 Sony Purchases Columbia Pictures; Chapter 169 Jim Barker is Sentenced for Fraud and Conspiracy; Chapter 170 Ford Buys Jaguar; Chapter 171 Avon Begins Operations in China; Chapter 172 Poland Begins Switching to a Market Economy; Chapter 173 The Soviet Parliament Allows Private Ownership; Chapter 174 Bush Signs the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; Chapter 175 Bush Signs the Clean Air Act of 1990; Chapter 176 U.S. Courts Restrict Rights to Photocopy Anthologies; Chapter 177 Elimination of Secret Swiss Bank Accounts Ends a Myth; Chapter 178 The European Market Unifies; Chapter 179 Euro Disneyland Opens; Chapter 180 World Leaders Confer on the Environment and Development; Chapter 181 Bell Atlantic and TCI Announce Merger Plans; Chapter 182 The North American Free Trade Agreement goes into Effect; Chapter 183 The Collapse of Barings; Chapter 184 U.S./Japanese Trade Relations: An Obligatory Alliance; Chapter 185 International Business Machines (IBM) Embraces Reengineering;
Frank N. Magill