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Circuit Analysis with PSpice
A Simplified Approach
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Book Description
Electric circuits, and their electronic circuit extensions, are found in all electrical and electronic equipment; including: household equipment, lighting, heating, air conditioning, control systems in both homes and commercial buildings, computers, consumer electronics, and means of transportation, such as cars, buses, trains, ships, and airplanes. Electric circuit analysis is essential for designing all these systems.
Electric circuit analysis is a foundation for all hardware courses taken by students in electrical engineering and allied fields, such as electronics, computer hardware, communications and control systems, and electric power. This book is intended to help students master basic electric circuit analysis, as an essential component of their professional education. Furthermore, the objective of this book is to approach circuit analysis by developing a sound understanding of fundamentals and a problemsolving methodology that encourages critical thinking.
Table of Contents
List of PSpice Simulations
Preface
Convention for Voltage and Current Symbols
Part I: Basic Concepts in Circuit Analysis
Chapter 1 Preliminaries to Circuit Analysis
Objective and Overview
1.1 What are electric circuits and what are they used for?
1.2 What laws govern the behavior of electric circuits?
1.3 What is electric current?
1.4 What is the direction of current?
1.5 What is voltage?
1.6 What is voltage polarity?
1.7 How are energy and power related to voltage and current?
1.8 What are ideal circuit elements and how do they handle energy?
1.9 Why resistance, capacitance, and inductance?
1.10 What are the approximations implicit in basic electric circuits?
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Resistive Circuits
Objective and Overview
2.1 Nature of Resistance
2.2 Ideal Resistors
2.3 Short Circuit and Open Circuit
2.4 Ideal, Independent Voltage Source
2.5 Ideal, Independent Current Source
2.6 Ideal, Dependent Sources
2.7 Nomenclature and Analysis of Resistive Circuits
2.8 Kirchhoff’s Laws
2.9 Series and Parallel Connections
2.10 ProblemSolving Approach
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 3 Circuit Equivalence
Objective and Overview
3.1 Circuit Equivalence and its Implications
3.2 Series and Parallel Connection of Resistors
3.3 Resistivity
3.4 StarDelta Transformation
3.5 Series and Parallel Connection of Ideal Sources
3.6 LinearOutput Sources
3.7 ProblemSolving Approach Updated
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 4 Circuit Theorems
Objective and Overview
4.1 Excitation by Dependent Sources
4.2 Thevenin’s Theorem
4.3 Norton’s Theorem
4.4 Substitution Theorem
4.5 Source Absorption Theorem
4.6 ProblemSolving Approach Updated
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 5 Circuit Simplification
Objective and Overview
5.1 Superposition
5.2 Output Scaling
5.3 Redundant Resistors
5.4 Partitioning of Circuits by Ideal Sources
5.5 Source Rearrangement
5.6 Exploitation of Symmetry
5.6 ProblemSolving Approach Updated
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Appendix 5A Wheatstone Bridge
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 6 Circuit Equations
Objective and Overview
6.1 NodeVoltage Method
6.2 Dependent Sources in NodeVoltage Method
6.3 MeshCurrent Method
6.4 Dependent Sources in MeshCurrent Method
6.5 ProblemSolving Approach Updated
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 7 Capacitors, Inductors, and Duality
Objective and Overview
7.1 VoltageCurrent Relation of a Capacitor
7.2 VoltageCurrent Relation of an Inductor
7.3 Series and Parallel Connections of InitiallyUncharged Capacitors
7.4 Series and Parallel Connections of InitiallyUncharged Inductors
7.5 Duality
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Appendix 7A Derivation of the Dual of a Planar Circuit
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 8 Sinusoidal Steady State
Objective and Overview
8.1 The Sinusoidal Function
8.2 Responses to Sinusoidal Excitation
8.3 Phasors
8.4 Phasor Relations of Circuit Elements
8.5 Impedance and Reactance
8.6 Governing Equations
8.7 Representation in the Frequency Domain
8.8 Phasor Diagrams
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Appendix 8A ac Bridges
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 9 Linear Transformer
Objective and Overview
9.1 Magnetic Coupling
9.2 Mutual Inductance
9.3 Linear Transformer
9.4 TEquivalent Circuit
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Appendix 9A Energy Stored in MagneticallyCoupled Coils
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 10 Ideal Transforme
Objective and Overview
10.1 Magnetic Circuit
10.2 Ideal Transformer
10.3 Reflection of Circuits
10.4 Ideal Autotransformer
10.5 Transformer Imperfections
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 11 Basic Responses of FirstOrder Circuits
Objective and Overview
11.1 Capacitor Discharge
11.2 Capacitor Charging
11.3 Inductor Discharge
11.4 Inductor Charging
11.5 Generalized FirstOrder Circuits
11.6 Role of Transient
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 12 Basic Responses of SecondOrder Circuits
Objective and Overview
12.1 Natural Responses of Series RLC Circuit
12.2 Natural Response of Parallel GCL Circuit
12.3 Charging of Series RLC Circuit
12.4 Procedure for Analyzing Prototypical SecondOrder Circuits
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Appendix 12A More General SecondOrder Circuits
Exercises and Problems
Part II: Topics in Circuit Analysis
Chapter 13 Ideal Operational Amplifier
Objective and Overview
13.1 Basic Properties
13.2 Feedback
13.3 Noninverting Configuration
13.4 Inverting Configuration
13.5 Applications of the Inverting Configuration
13.6 Difference Amplifier
13.7 Solving Problems on Operational Amplifiers
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 14 Frequency Responses
Objective and Overview
14.1 Analysis of Filters
14.2 Ideal Frequency Responses
14.3 FirstOrder Responses
14.4 Bode Plots
14.5 SecondOrder Bandpass Response
14.6 SecondOrder Bandstop Response
14.7 SecondOrder Lowpass and Highpass Responses
14.8 Parallel Circuit
14.9 Summary of SecondOrder Responses
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 15 Butterworth and Active Filters
Objective and Overview
15.1 Scaling
15.2 Butterworth Response
15.3 FirstOrder Active Filters
15.4 NonInverting SecondOrder Active Filters
15.5 Inverting SecondOrder Active Filters
15.6 Universal Filter
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 16 Responses to Periodic Inputs
Objective and Overview
16.1 Fourier Series
16.2 Fourier Analysis
16.3 Symmetry Properties of Fourier Series
16.4 Derivation of FSEs from those of Other Functions
16.5 Concluding Remarks on FSEs
16.6 Circuit Responses to Periodic Functions
16.7 Average Power and rms Values
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 17 Real, Reactive and Complex Power
Objective and Overview
17.1 Instantaneous and Real Power
17.2 Complex Power
17.3 Power Factor Correction
17.4 Maximum Power Transfer
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 18 Responses to Step and Impulse Inputs
Objective and Overview
18.1 Capacitor Response to Current Pulse
18.2 The Impulse Function
18.3 Response of Capacitive Circuits to Step and impulse inputs
18.4 Inductor Response to Voltage Pulse
18.5 Response of Inductive Circuits to Step and impulse inputs
18.6 Response of RLC Circuits to Step and Impulse Inputs
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 19 Switched Circuits with Initial Energy Storage
Objective and Overview
19.1 Series and Parallel Connections of Inductors with Initial Charges
19.2 Series and Parallel Connections of Inductors with Initial Currents
19.3 Switched Circuits
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 20 Convolution
Objective and Overview
20.1 Shifting in Time and Folding
20.2 The Convolution Integral
20.3 Operational Properties of Convolution
20.4 Special Cases of Convolution
20.5 Some General Properties of the Convolution Integral
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 21 Properties of the Laplace Transform
Objective and Overview
21.1 General
21.2 Operational Properties of the LT
21.3 Solution of Ordinary, Linear Differential Equations
21.4 Theorems on the Laplace Transform
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Appendix 21A Simplification of Rational Functions of s
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 22 The Laplace Transform in Circuit Analysis
Objective and Overview
22.1 Representation of Circuit Elements in the s Domain
22.2 Solution of Circuit Problems in the s Domain
22.3 Transfer Function
22.4 Interpretations of Circuit Responses in the sDomain
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
ProblemSolving Tips
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 23 Fourier Transform
Objective and Overview
23.1 Derivation of the Fourier Transform
23.2 Some General Properties of the Fourier Transform
23.3 Operational Properties of the Fourier Transform
23.4 Circuit Applications of the Fourier Transform
23.5 Parseval’s Theorem
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 24 TwoPort Circuits
Objective and Overview
24.1 Circuit Description
24.2 Parameter Interpretation and Relations
24.3 Equivalent Circuits
24.4 Composite TwoPort Circuits
24.5 Analysis of Terminated TwoPort Circuits
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
Exercises and Problems
Chapter 25 Balanced ThreePhase Systems
Objective and Overview
25.1 ThreePhase Variables
25.2 The Balanced Y Connection
25.3 The Balanced D Connection
25.4 Analysis of Balanced ThreePhase Systems
25.5 Power in Balanced ThreePhase Systems
25.6 Advantages of ThreePhase Systems
25.7 Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution
Learning Checklist: What should be learned from this chapter
Exercises and Problems
Appendices
Appendix A SI Units, Symbols, and Prefixes
Appendix B Useful Mathematical Relations
Appendix C PSpice Simulation
Appendix D Complex Numbers and Algebra
Appendix E Solution of Linear Simultaneous Equations
Author(s)
Biography
Nassir Sabah is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. He received his B.Sc. (Hons. Class I) and his M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Birmingham, U.K., and his Ph.D. in biophysical sciences from the State University of New York (SUNY/Buffalo). He has served as Chairman of the Electrical Engineering Department, Director of the Institute of Computer Studies, and Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, at the American University of Beirut. In these capacities, he was responsible for the development of programs, curricula, and courses in electrical, biomedical, communications, and computer engineering. Professor Sabah has extensive professional experience in the fields of electrical engineering, electronics, and computer systems, with more than 35 years teaching experience in electric circuits, electronics, neuroengineering, and biomedical engineering. He has over 100 technical publications, mainly in neurophysiology, biophysics, and biomedical instrumentation. He has served on numerous committees and panels in Lebanon and the region. Professor Sabah is a Fellow of the IET, U.K., and a member of the American Society of Engineering Education.
Reviews
"… I like the author’s approach in using easy to understand language, an easy to follow format, and a pedagogical method in using constructive alignment in using aims and objectives at the start of each chapter … While there are other books, I have yet to find one that can simplify the material and approach to make it easy to understand, yet allow the students to go to all the way to solve complex or practical problems with confidence. The author convinces me that he has through trial and error found an optimal approach to allow this to happen."
— Paul M. Holland, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom
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