Civil-Military Relations in Europe
Learning from Crisis and Institutional Change
This new book illustrates how democracy cannot develop or endure unless military and security forces are under the full control of democratic institutions, and all the necessary safeguards, checks and balances are in place.
The contributors show how contemporary European states manage the following issue: how does a society, primarily through its legitimate, democratically elected political leaders and their appointed officials, control the military, that same state institution that has been established for its protection and wields the monopoly of legitimate force?
Twenty-eight case studies are selected from key countries: the Czech Republic, Germany, Georgia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, and the Ukraine. The key subjects of these cases vary from corruption to military incompetence, disobedience towards civilian superiors, to unauthorized strikes and accidents. The focus is on the relationship between political, civilian and military actors while identifying problems and dangers that can emerge in those relations to the detriment of effective and legitimate democratic control.
This is essential reading for students of civil-military relations, democratization, European politics and security studies in general.
Table of Contents
Preface Part 1: Introduction 1. Civilians and the Military in Europe Hans Born, Marina Caparini, Karl Haltiner, Jürgen Kuhlmann Part 2: Transition States 2. Stressed and Strained Civil-Military Relations in Romania, but Successfully Reforming Larry L. Watts 3. Differentia Specifica: Military Reform in Serbia and Montenegro Mirsoslav Hadzic 4. The Impact of Conflict and Corruption on Macedonia’s Civil Military Relations Biljana Vankovska 5. Political Irresponsibility and Lack of Transparency in Ukrainian Defence Reform Anatoliy Grytsenko 6. Striving for Effective Parliamentary Control over the Armed Forces in Georgia David Darchiashvili Part 3: Consolidating Democracies 7. Problems Confronting Civilian Democratic Control in Poland Agnieszka Gogolewska 8. Civil-Military Relations in Hungary: From Competition to Cooperation Ferenc Molnar 9. Executive Decisions and Divisions: Disputing Competences in Civil-Military Relations in Slovenia Marjan Malesic 10. Modernisation of the Czech Armed Forces: No Walk through a Rose Garden Marie Vlachova 11. The Eve of Statehood for Israel: a Battle for Civil Supremacy over the Military Amir Bar-Or Part 4: Established Democracies 12. The Military Voice in France: on the Streets and in the Newspapers Bernard Boëne 13. Democratic Control of the Swiss Militia in Times of War and Peace: Ideal and Reality Karl Haltiner and Tibor Szvircsev Tresch 14. International Prestige and Domestic Democratic Values in Civil-Military Conflicts: Two Irish Case Studies Jean Callaghan and Ray Murphy 15. His Master’s Voice? Freedom of Speech and the German Citizen in Uniform Jean Callaghan, Jürgen Kuhlmann, and Jürgen Rose Part 5: Conclusions 16. Patterns of Democratic Governance of Civil-Military Relations Hans Born, Marina Caparini, Karl Haltiner, Jürgen Kuhlmann
Hans Born is Senior Research Fellow at the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).
Marina Caparini is Senior Fellow at the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).
Karl Haltiner is Chair of Military Sociology at the Military Academy at the ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
Jürgen Kuhlmann is Former Director of the Research Department at the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
'This book stands out for the breadth of the countries studied and should be read by all students of security sector reform.'
Thomas Jackson, Journal of Peace Research