This book reviews the state of agricultural climate change mitigation globally, with a focus on identifying the feasibility, opportunities and challenges for achieving mitigation among smallholder farmers. The purpose is ultimately to accelerate efforts towards mitigating land-based climate change. While much attention has been focused on forestry for its reputed cost-effectiveness, the agricultural sector contributes about ten to twelve per cent of emissions and has a large technical and economic potential for reducing greenhouse gases. The book does not dwell on the science of emissions reduction, as this is well covered elsewhere; rather, it focuses on the design and practical implementation of mitigation activities through changing farming systems.
Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture includes chapters about experiences in developed countries, such as Canada and Australia, where these efforts also have lessons for mitigation options for smallholders in poorer nations, as well as industrialising countries such as Brazil and China. A wide range of agroecological zones and of aspects or types of farming, including livestock, crops, fish farming, fertilizer use and agroforestry, as well as economics and finance, is included. The volume presents a synthesis of current knowledge and research activities on this emerging subject. Together the chapters capture an exciting period in the development of land-based climate change mitigation as attention is increasingly focused on agriculture's role in contributing to climate change.
Table of Contents
Part I: Introduction 1. Agriculture and Climate Change Mitigation: Designing Projects and Policies for Smallholder Farmers Eva Wollenberg, Marja-Liisa Tapio-Biström, Maryann Grieg-Gran 2. Agricultural Mitigation Approaches for Smallholders in Different Farming Systems Christina Seeberg-Elverfeldt and Marja-Liisa Tapio-Biström 3. Evaluating Synergies and Trade-offs Among Food Security, Development and Climate Change Nancy McCarthy, Leslie Lipper, Wendy Mann, Giacomo Branca, Jeronim Capaldo 4. Achieving Mitigation through Synergies with Adaptation Pete Smith and Eva Wollenberg Part II: Institutional arrangements and incentives 5. Challenges Facing Agricultural Access to Carbon Markets Alessandro De Pinto, Marilia Magalhaes, Claudia Ringler 6. Reducing Project Costs and Risk for Farmers in Smallholder Agriculture Carbon Projects Seth Shames, Louise E. Buck, Sara J. Scherr 7. How to Make Carbon Finance Work for Smallholders in Africa Bo Lager and Ylva Nyberg 8. Designing Agricultural Mitigation for Smallholders in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis of Projects in East Africa Jean Lee and Jess Newman 9. Using Certification to Support Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Agriculture Jeff Hayward, Gianluca Gondolini, Oliver Bach, Mark Moroge 10. Lessons Learned from REDD for Agriculture Christine Negra and Eva Wollenberg 11. Sustainable Land Management and Carbon Finance: The Experience of the BioCarbon Fund Ellysar Baroudy and Neeta Hooda 12. Financing Mitigation in Smallholder Agricultural Systems: Issues and Opportunities Tanja Havemann 13. Economics of Agricultural Carbon Sequestration in Sub-Saharan Africa Timm Tennigkeit, Fredrich Kahrl, Johannes Wölcke, Ken Newcombe 14. The Potential for Microfinance as a Channel for Carbon Payments Fred Werneck 15. Payments for Environmental Services to Mitigate Climate Change: Agriculture and Forestry Compared Sven Wunder and Jan Börner 16. Avoided Deforestation on Smallholder Farms in the Brazilian Amazon Osvaldo Stella Martins, Erika Pinto, Paulo Moutinho, Maria Lucimar Souza, Ricardo Rettmann, Galdino Xavier, Simone Mazer, Ane Alencar, Isabel Castro 17. An Australian Landscape-based Approach: AFOLU Mitigation for Smallholders Penny van Oosterzee, Noel Preece, Allan Dale 18. Sustaining China’s Agriculture in a Changing Climate: A Multidisciplinary Action through UK – China Cooperation Yuelai Lu, David Powlson, David Norse, David Chadwick, Declan Conway, Brian Ford-Lloyd, Pete Smith, Tim Wheeler Part III: GHG Measurement and Accounting 19. Farm-scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions Using the Cool Farm Tool: Application of a Generic Farming Emissions Calculator in Developing Countries Jonathan Hillier, Pete Smith, Tobias Bandel, Stephanie Daniels, Daniella Malin, Hal Hamilton, Christof Walter 20. Using Biogeochemical Process Models to Quantify Greenhouse Gas Mitigation from Agricultural Management Lydia P. Olander 21. An Emissions-intensity Approach for Crediting Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture: Reconciling Climate and Food Security Objectives in the Developing World Justin S. Baker and Brian C. Murray 22. Emerging Techniques for Soil Carbon Measurements Debora M.B.P. Milori, Aline Segnini, Wilson T.L. Da Silva, Adolfo Posadas, Victor Mares, Roberto Quiroz, Ladislau Martin Neto 23. Carbon Accounting for Smallholder Agricultural Soil Carbon Projects Matthias Seebauer, Timm Tennigkeit, Neil Bird, Giuliana Zanchi 24. Accounting for Quality in Agricultural Carbon Credits: A Verified Carbon Standard for Agricultural Land Management Projects Naomi Swickard and Alison Nihart Part IV: Case studies: Sectors 25. Conservation Agriculture as a Means to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change: A Case Study from Mexico Nele Verhulst, Bram Govaerts, Ken D. Sayre, Kai Sonder, Ricardo Romero-Perezgrovas, Monica Mezzalama, Luc Dendooven 26. Potential of Agricultural Carbon Sequestration in Sub-Saharan Africa Timm Tennigkeit, Fredrich Kahrl, Johannes Wölcke, Ken Newcombe 27. Livestock and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Mitigation Options and Trade-offs Mario Herrero, Philip K. Thornton, Petr Havlik, Mariana Rufino 28. Home on the Range: The Contribution of Rangeland Management to Climate Change Mitigation Constance L. Neely and Jan De Leeuw 29. Integrated Nutrient Management as a Key Contributor to China’s Low Carbon Agriculture David Norse, David Powlson, Yuelai Lu 30. Climate Change Mitigation in Agroforestry Systems: Linking Smallholders to Forest Carbon Markets Bambi L. Semroc, Götz Schroth, Celia A. Harvey, Yatziri Zepeda, Terry Hills, Saodah Lubis, Candra Wirawan Arief, Olaf Zerbock, Frederick Boltz 31. Livelihood and Environmental Trade-offs of Climate Mitigation in Smallholder Coffee Agroforestry Systems V. Ernesto Méndez, Sebastian Castro-Tanzi, Katherine Goodall, Katlyn S. Morris, Christopher M. Bacon, Peter Läderach, William B. Morris, Maria Ursula Georgeoglou-Laxalde 32. Agricultural Intensification as a Climate Mitigation and Food Security Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa James Gockowski and Piet Van Asten 33. Carbon Trade-offs Along Tropical Forest Margins: Lessons from ASB Work in Cameroon Peter A. Minang, Meine van Noordwijk, James Gockowski 34. Mitigation Options from Forestry and Agriculture in the Amazon Jan Börner and Sven Wunder
Eva 'Lini' Wollenberg is a social scientist and faculty member at the University of Vermont coordinating mitigation research for the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security Research Program of the CGIAR.
Marja-Liisa Tapio-Bistrom is an agricultural economist and coordinator of the FAO Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) program.
Maryanne Grieg-Gran is Principal Researcher in the Sustainable Markets Group at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, UK.
Alison Nihart is a masters student in Natural Resources at the University of Vermont, USA.