Two of the greatest current challenges are climate change (and variability) and food security. Feeding nine billion people by 2050 will require major efforts aimed at climate change adaptation and mitigation. One approach to agriculture has recently been captured by the widely adopted term of "Climate Smart Agriculture" (CSA). This book not only explains what this entails, but also presents practical on-the-ground studies of practices and innovations in agriculture across a broader spectrum, including agroecology and conservation agriculture, in less developed countries.
It is shown that CSA is not a completely new science and a number of its recommended technologies have been used for some time by local farmers all over the world. What is relevant and new is ‘the approach’ to exploit their adaptation and mitigation potential. However, a major limitation is the lack of evidence-based knowledge that is necessary for policy makers to prepare strategies for adaptation and mitigation. This book assembles knowledge of CSA, agroecology and conservation agriculture, and perspectives from different regions of the world, to build resilient food systems.
The first part analyzes the concept, opportunities and challenges, and provides a global perspective, drawing particularly on studies from Africa and Asia. The second part of the book showcases results from various studies linked to soil, water and crop management measures from an ongoing program in India as well as experiences from other regions. The third section assesses the needs for an enabling policy environment, mainstreaming gender and sime final recommendations for up-scaling and/or out-scaling innovations.
1. Climate Smart Agriculture: Is This the New Paradigm of Agricultural Development?
Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, Solveig Kolberg and Clare Maeve Stirling
2. Climate Extremes, Climate Variability and Climate Smart Agriculture
Molly E. Brown
3. Building Climate Resilience through Smart Water and Irrigation Management Systems: Experience from Southeast Asia
Matthew P. McCartney, Robyn Johnston and Guillaume Lacombe
4. Combating Climate Change: Developing Sustainable Intensive Farming Systems in China
Mei Xurong, Dong Hongmin, Li Yue, Nicholas Clarke, Gong Daozhi, Hao Weiping, Li Yingchun, Liu Buchun, Ma Xin and Xiong Wei
5. Climate Variabilityand Extremes: Relevance of Agro-ecological-based Climate Smart Farming Systems in the Sub-Saharan Africa
Sita Ghimire, Monday Ahonsi and Appolinaire Djikeng
6. Building Resilience in African Smallholder Farming Communities through Farmer-led Agro-ecological Methods
Rachel Bezner Kerr, Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Esther Lupafya, Laifolo Dakishoni, Lizzie. Shumba and Isaac Luginaah
7. Precision Nutrient Management under Conservation Agriculture-based Cereal Systems in South Asia
Tek B. Sapkota, Kaushik Majumdar, Ritika Khurana, Raj K. Jat, Clare Maeve Stirling and Jat M.L.
8. Integrated Soil and Nutrient Management Practices: Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change Impacts
Mehreteab Tesfai, Irene Moed, Inga Greipsland, Thorsten Huber and Niek van Duivenbooden
9. Water Productivity under Different Rice Growing Practices: Results from Farmer-led Field Demonstrations in India
Johannes Deelstra, Krishna Reddy K., Suresh Reddy K., Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, Geethalakshmi V., Lakshmanan A. and Arasu M.S.
10. Climate Smart Rice Production Systems: Studying the Potential of Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation
Krishna Reddy K., Mehreteab Tesfai, Andrew Borrell, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, Suresh Reddy K. and Gurava Reddy K.
11. System of Rice Intensification: A Climate-smart Rice Cultivation System to Mitigate Climate Change Impacts in India
Geethalakshmi V., Mehreteab Tesfai, Lakshmanan A., Andrew Borrell, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, Arasu M.S., Senthilraja K., Manikandan N. and Sumathi S.
12. Gendered Adaptation to Climate Change in Canal-irrigated Agro-ecosystems
Rengalakshmi R. and Udaya Sekhar Nagothu
13. Climate Mitigation and Adaptation: Institutional and Policy Support in India
Solveig Kolberg and Udaya Sekhar Nagothu
14. Summary and Recommendations
Udaya Sekhar Nagothu