Climate Change and Agriculture: Implication for Global Food Security, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Climate Change and Agriculture

Implication for Global Food Security, 1st Edition

By H.P. Das

CRC Press

615 pages

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Hardback: 9781498769761
pub: 2016-03-21
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Description

One of the greatest challenges facing humankind is to minimize the impact of human-induced climate change on the agricultural production and also on the production from livestock, forestry and fisheries sectors. Ever-expanding global population and increased income is likely to generate an increase in demand for food and fibre by the middle of this century. At the same time the lands and fresh water resources available for expansion of agriculture may be of lower quality than those currently in use. In order to minimize possible adverse consequences including production losses, food price increases, and food insecurity, there needs to be greater intensive agriculture. This can be achieved by adoption of efficient adaptation techniques in combination with measures taken to preserve the environment and to use resources more efficiently. The range of adaptation options for agriculture, forestry, and fisheries is generally increasing because of technological advances, thus reducing the vulnerability of these systems to climate change. However, in many developing countries technology generation, innovation, and adoption are too slow to sufficiently counteract the increasingly negative effects of climate change. This book represents a major step in understanding the science of various aspects of climate change with likely impacts on agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fisheries with clear adaptation strategies required to reduce their vulnerability.

Table of Contents

Perspectives on the Interactions between Climate Change Parameters and their Agricultural Significance: An Overview

Introduction

The Climate System and the Interactions between its Components

Continental Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Complexity of Climate Variables and their Relationship

The Physical Basis of Climate

Feedback of Climate Change

Global Warming

The Impact of Climate Change on Ecosystem

Agricultural Greenhouse Gases

Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture

Effects of the Greenhouse Gases on Plant Physiological Process

Effects of Higher Temperature

Climate Change Impact on Agriculture and Food Security

Climate Change Impact on Soil and Water Resources

Climate Change Impact on Fisheries and Aquaculture

Interaction between Agricultural and Non-agricultural Ecosystems

Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change

Conclusion

Impact of Climate Change on the Global Hydrological Cycle: Implications for Water Resources and Agriculture

Introduction

Techniques for Evaluation of the Impacts of Global Warming on Hydrological Cycle

The Oceans and the Hydrological Cycle

Emissions and Sinks of Gases Affected by Hydrological Processes

Effects of Climate Change on the Components of Water Balance

Effects of Climate Change on River Flows

Influence of Changing Climate on Flood Frequency

Changes in Hydrological Drought Frequency

Changes in Snow and Land Ice

Changes in Glaciers and Small Ice Caps

Changes in Quality and Quantity of Water

Hydrological Cycle and Soil Climate

Hydrological Cycle and Agricultural Regime Shifts

Climate Change Impact on Agriculture through Hydrological Changes and Prospects for Adaptation

Forest and the Global Hydrological Cycle

Sea-level Rise due to Global Warming

Conclusions

Soil Carbon Cycle and Impact of Climate Change on Soil Conditions: Implications for Plant Growth and Food Production

Introduction

Soil Organic Carbon and its Beneficial Role

Changes in Agricultural Soil Carbon Stock

Factors Strengthening Soil Organic Carbon Levels

Interaction of Soil Carbon Cycle with Water and Nutrient Cycles and Soil Biota

Building and Sequestration of SOC

Building Soil Carbon in Cropping System

Application of Fertilizer

Soil Microorganisms and Climate Change

Microbial Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Agronomic-Ecological Interactions with Increasing Levels of Greenhouse Gases

Effects of Higher CO2 on Soil Fertility and Productivity

Effects of Rainfall and Temperature Changes on Soils in Different Climates

Effect of Climate Change on Snow and Soil Temperature in High Latitude

Climate Change Impacts on Soil Dynamics and Processes: Implications for Agriculture

Soil Respiration and Global Carbon Cycle

Resilience against Soil Degradation

Soil Reaction (pH)

Adaptation to Climate Change

Soil Carbon and Sustainability of

Agricultural System

Carbon Trading

Effects of Sea Level Rise on Soils in Coastal

Wetlands and Associated Agricultural Implications

Conclusions

Global Climate Change Impact on Agricultural and Livestock Production and Adaptation Strategies for Mitigation

Introduction

Effect of Environmental Factors in Association with CO2 on Plant Growth Processes

CO2 Effects on Plant Growth Process

Photosynthesis and High Temperature

Effects of Interaction between Elevated CO2 and Atmospheric Pollutants on Agriculture

Effects on Soil Fertility and Agricultural Practices

Human Response to Climate Change

Response of the Plants to Global Warming—CO2 Fertilization Effect

Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production

Crop Growth Simulation Model for Climate Change Impact Assessment

Agricultural Biodiversity and Climate Change

Mountain Agriculture and Climate Change

Vulnerability to Climate Change and its Assessment

Extent of Adaptability of Agricultural System to Climate Change

Adaptation of Agriculture to Climate Change

Some Possible Adaptation Strategies

Technological Potential to Adapt

Livestock Sector under Changing Climate

Adaptations and Adjustments for Livestock under Changing Climate

Plant and Animal Genetic Resources in Adapting the Climate Change Effects

Concluding Remarks

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Measures in Agro-Ecosystems

Introduction

Response of Agriculture to Food Demand and

Emission of Greenhouse Gases

Physical and Biogeochemical Feedbacks

Agricultural Sources and Sinks of

Greenhouse Gases

Mitigation of Agricultural Emissions of

Greenhouse Gases

Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emission

Reduction of Methane Emission

Reduction of Nitrous Oxide Emissions

Conclusions

Land Degradation, Range Degradation and Desertification under Changing Climate

Introduction

Land Degradation

Causes and Processes of Land Degradation

Climate Change and Land Degradation

Land Degradation and Food Security under Changing Climate Soil Erosion: Causes and Processes

Impact of Climate Change on Soil Erosion and Adaptive Strategies for Mitigation

Desertification

Nature and Causes of Desertification

Climate Change and Desertification

Drought, Land Degradation and Desertification: Implications for Ecosystems and Vegetation

Desertification and Livelihood Security of Rural Communities

Adaptation Strategies for Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Land Degradation and Desertification

Importance of Land-Use Change for GHGs Fluxes

Biofuel and Land Degradation

Rangeland Degradation

Causes of Rangeland Degradation

Agricultural Resources in Rangelands

Human Adaptation for Rangeland Agriculture to Combat Degradation

Mitigation Strategies in Rangeland Agriculture to Combat Range Degradation

Conclusions

Impact of Climate Change on Fisheries and Aquaculture and Adaptation Strategies

Introduction

Present Fisheries Production, Trends, Threats and Variations in Stock Size

Marine Fisheries

Inland Fisheries and Inland Aquaculture

Influence of Climate on Biological Production in the Sea

Fluctuation in Diversity and Abundance of Marine Fish

Fish Productivity and Upwelling

Impact of El Nino on Fish Productivity

Aquaculture

Impact of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Fisheries

Impact of Extreme Events on Fisheries and Aquaculture

Livelihood Security of the Fishing Communities

Carbon Footprint of Fisheries

Fisheries Biodiversity and Climate Change

Vulnerability of Coral Reef

Future Fish Production

Identification of Fishing Zone by Remote Sensing Technique

Adaptation Options for Mitigation of Climate Changes Effects on Fisheries and Aquaculture

Conclusions

Climate Change Impact on Forests and Adaptation Strategies

Introduction

Geographical Shift of Vegetation under Changing Climate

Forest-Climate Interaction and Feedbacks

Sensitivity of Forest Ecosystem to Changes in Climate Variables

Impact of Climate Change on Forests

Pressure from Air Pollution and Air Quality

Deforestation and CO2 Emission

Afforestation/Reforestation and Carbon Sequestration

Extreme Climates and Forest Disturbances

Forest Biodiversity and Climate Change

Forest Biodiversity and Land Degradation under Changing Climate

Impact on Food Security

Carbon Mitigation Options by Forest Management

Adaptation Measures

Conclusions

Climate Change, Food and Agriculture System, and Global Food Security

Introduction

Trends of Agriculture, Population Growth and Food Consumption

Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Physiology

Effects of Elevated CO2 on Global Food Security

Impact of Extreme Weather Events on Food Security

Climate Change and Food Systems: the GECAFS Approach

Climate Change Impact on Agro-Ecological Conditions and Vulnerability of Food Security

Climate Change Impact on Agriculture and Food Security

Impact on Water Resources and Food Security

Adversity of Crop Pest and Diseases and

Food Security

Environment Induced Socio-economic Vulnerability and Food Security

Agricultural Biodiversity and Food Security

Biofuel Production and Food Security

Climate Change Models for Use in Impact Studies

Impact of Climate Change on Risk of Hunger

Integrated Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

Capacity Building

Conclusions and Future Needs

Climate Change, Climate Variability and Climate Extremes: Agrometeorological Impact of Extreme Weather Events

Introduction

Understanding of Climate Change, Climate Variability and Climate Extremes

Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes

Phenomena Related to Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes

Impact on the Natural Physical Environment

Socio-economic Impact of Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes

Agrometeorological Impact of Extreme Weather Events and Mitigation Strategies

Implications and Future Needs

Livelihood Strategies of Farmers and Fishers under Changing Climate

Introduction

Food Security Concerning Small-scale Farmers and Fishers

Seasonal Forecasting

Water Harvesting

Farmers Adapting to Climate Change

Extreme Weather Events and Livelihood Concern

Building Resilience and Improved Livelihoods

Vulnerability of Subsistence Farmers, Pastoralists and Fisherfolk

Impact of Climate Change on the Livelihood of Fishers

Livelihood Diversification for Small-scale Farmers and Fishers

Conclusions and Ways Forward.

About the Author

Dr. H.P. Das, former Deputy Director General of Meteorology of the India Meteorological Department, was in-charge of the Division of Agricultural Meteorology, Pune and in that capacity had been implementing the operational and research programmes of the Division. He has actively participated in many Agricultural Meteorology Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as Chairman/Leader/Member of several Working Groups and Expert Teams of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology. With over 35 years of experience in agrometeorological research and applications and teaching in various aspects of Agricultural Meteorology, Dr. Das has authored over 175 research papers and articles, as well as many book chapters and several other technical publications including WMO Technical Notes and Training materials. He is a recipient of the award of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology for his outstanding contributions and exceptional service to the commission. He is currently the Vice-President of the International Society for Agricultural Meteorology (INSAM).

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT010000
NATURE / Ecology
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General