Climate Change and Agriculture : Implication for Global Food Security book cover
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Climate Change and Agriculture
Implication for Global Food Security



ISBN 9781498769761
Published March 21, 2016 by CRC Press
615 Pages

 
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Book Description

One of the greatest challenges facing humankind is to minimize the impact of human-induced climate change on the agricultural production and also on the production from livestock, forestry and fisheries sectors. Ever-expanding global population and increased income is likely to generate an increase in demand for food and fibre by the middle of this century. At the same time the lands and fresh water resources available for expansion of agriculture may be of lower quality than those currently in use. In order to minimize possible adverse consequences including production losses, food price increases, and food insecurity, there needs to be greater intensive agriculture. This can be achieved by adoption of efficient adaptation techniques in combination with measures taken to preserve the environment and to use resources more efficiently. The range of adaptation options for agriculture, forestry, and fisheries is generally increasing because of technological advances, thus reducing the vulnerability of these systems to climate change. However, in many developing countries technology generation, innovation, and adoption are too slow to sufficiently counteract the increasingly negative effects of climate change. This book represents a major step in understanding the science of various aspects of climate change with likely impacts on agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fisheries with clear adaptation strategies required to reduce their vulnerability.

Table of Contents

Perspectives on the Interactions between Climate Change Parameters and their Agricultural Significance: An Overview
Introduction
The Climate System and the Interactions between its Components
Continental Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change
Complexity of Climate Variables and their Relationship
The Physical Basis of Climate
Feedback of Climate Change
Global Warming
The Impact of Climate Change on Ecosystem
Agricultural Greenhouse Gases
Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture
Effects of the Greenhouse Gases on Plant Physiological Process
Effects of Higher Temperature
Climate Change Impact on Agriculture and Food Security
Climate Change Impact on Soil and Water Resources
Climate Change Impact on Fisheries and Aquaculture
Interaction between Agricultural and Non-agricultural Ecosystems
Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change
Conclusion

Impact of Climate Change on the Global Hydrological Cycle: Implications for Water Resources and Agriculture
Introduction
Techniques for Evaluation of the Impacts of Global Warming on Hydrological Cycle
The Oceans and the Hydrological Cycle
Emissions and Sinks of Gases Affected by Hydrological Processes
Effects of Climate Change on the Components of Water Balance
Effects of Climate Change on River Flows
Influence of Changing Climate on Flood Frequency
Changes in Hydrological Drought Frequency
Changes in Snow and Land Ice
Changes in Glaciers and Small Ice Caps
Changes in Quality and Quantity of Water
Hydrological Cycle and Soil Climate
Hydrological Cycle and Agricultural Regime Shifts
Climate Change Impact on Agriculture through Hydrological Changes and Prospects for Adaptation
Forest and the Global Hydrological Cycle
Sea-level Rise due to Global Warming
Conclusions

Soil Carbon Cycle and Impact of Climate Change on Soil Conditions: Implications for Plant Growth and Food Production
Introduction
Soil Organic Carbon and its Beneficial Role
Changes in Agricultural Soil Carbon Stock
Factors Strengthening Soil Organic Carbon Levels
Interaction of Soil Carbon Cycle with Water and Nutrient Cycles and Soil Biota
Building and Sequestration of SOC
Building Soil Carbon in Cropping System
Application of Fertilizer
Soil Microorganisms and Climate Change
Microbial Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Agronomic-Ecological Interactions with Increasing Levels of Greenhouse Gases
Effects of Higher CO2 on Soil Fertility and Productivity
Effects of Rainfall and Temperature Changes on Soils in Different Climates
Effect of Climate Change on Snow and Soil Temperature in High Latitude
Climate Change Impacts on Soil Dynamics and Processes: Implications for Agriculture
Soil Respiration and Global Carbon Cycle
Resilience against Soil Degradation
Soil Reaction (pH)
Adaptation to Climate Change
Soil Carbon and Sustainability of
Agricultural System
Carbon Trading
Effects of Sea Level Rise on Soils in Coastal
Wetlands and Associated Agricultural Implications
Conclusions

Global Climate Change Impact on Agricultural and Livestock Production and Adaptation Strategies for Mitigation
Introduction
Effect of Environmental Factors in Association with CO2 on Plant Growth Processes
CO2 Effects on Plant Growth Process
Photosynthesis and High Temperature
Effects of Interaction between Elevated CO2 and Atmospheric Pollutants on Agriculture
Effects on Soil Fertility and Agricultural Practices
Human Response to Climate Change
Response of the Plants to Global Warming—CO2 Fertilization Effect
Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production
Crop Growth Simulation Model for Climate Change Impact Assessment
Agricultural Biodiversity and Climate Change
Mountain Agriculture and Climate Change
Vulnerability to Climate Change and its Assessment
Extent of Adaptability of Agricultural System to Climate Change
Adaptation of Agriculture to Climate Change
Some Possible Adaptation Strategies
Technological Potential to Adapt
Livestock Sector under Changing Climate
Adaptations and Adjustments for Livestock under Changing Climate
Plant and Animal Genetic Resources in Adapting the Climate Change Effects
Concluding Remarks

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Measures in Agro-Ecosystems
Introduction
Response of Agriculture to Food Demand and
Emission of Greenhouse Gases
Physical and Biogeochemical Feedbacks
Agricultural Sources and Sinks of
Greenhouse Gases
Mitigation of Agricultural Emissions of
Greenhouse Gases
Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emission
Reduction of Methane Emission
Reduction of Nitrous Oxide Emissions
Conclusions

Land Degradation, Range Degradation and Desertification under Changing Climate
Introduction
Land Degradation
Causes and Processes of Land Degradation
Climate Change and Land Degradation
Land Degradation and Food Security under Changing Climate Soil Erosion: Causes and Processes
Impact of Climate Change on Soil Erosion and Adaptive Strategies for Mitigation
Desertification
Nature and Causes of Desertification
Climate Change and Desertification
Drought, Land Degradation and Desertification: Implications for Ecosystems and Vegetation
Desertification and Livelihood Security of Rural Communities
Adaptation Strategies for Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Land Degradation and Desertification
Importance of Land-Use Change for GHGs Fluxes
Biofuel and Land Degradation
Rangeland Degradation
Causes of Rangeland Degradation
Agricultural Resources in Rangelands
Human Adaptation for Rangeland Agriculture to Combat Degradation
Mitigation Strategies in Rangeland Agriculture to Combat Range Degradation
Conclusions

Impact of Climate Change on Fisheries and Aquaculture and Adaptation Strategies
Introduction
Present Fisheries Production, Trends, Threats and Variations in Stock Size
Marine Fisheries
Inland Fisheries and Inland Aquaculture
Influence of Climate on Biological Production in the Sea
Fluctuation in Diversity and Abundance of Marine Fish
Fish Productivity and Upwelling
Impact of El Nino on Fish Productivity
Aquaculture
Impact of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Fisheries
Impact of Extreme Events on Fisheries and Aquaculture
Livelihood Security of the Fishing Communities
Carbon Footprint of Fisheries
Fisheries Biodiversity and Climate Change
Vulnerability of Coral Reef
Future Fish Production
Identification of Fishing Zone by Remote Sensing Technique
Adaptation Options for Mitigation of Climate Changes Effects on Fisheries and Aquaculture
Conclusions

Climate Change Impact on Forests and Adaptation Strategies
Introduction
Geographical Shift of Vegetation under Changing Climate
Forest-Climate Interaction and Feedbacks
Sensitivity of Forest Ecosystem to Changes in Climate Variables
Impact of Climate Change on Forests
Pressure from Air Pollution and Air Quality
Deforestation and CO2 Emission
Afforestation/Reforestation and Carbon Sequestration
Extreme Climates and Forest Disturbances
Forest Biodiversity and Climate Change
Forest Biodiversity and Land Degradation under Changing Climate
Impact on Food Security
Carbon Mitigation Options by Forest Management
Adaptation Measures
Conclusions

Climate Change, Food and Agriculture System, and Global Food Security
Introduction
Trends of Agriculture, Population Growth and Food Consumption
Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Physiology
Effects of Elevated CO2 on Global Food Security
Impact of Extreme Weather Events on Food Security
Climate Change and Food Systems: the GECAFS Approach
Climate Change Impact on Agro-Ecological Conditions and Vulnerability of Food Security
Climate Change Impact on Agriculture and Food Security
Impact on Water Resources and Food Security
Adversity of Crop Pest and Diseases and
Food Security
Environment Induced Socio-economic Vulnerability and Food Security
Agricultural Biodiversity and Food Security
Biofuel Production and Food Security
Climate Change Models for Use in Impact Studies
Impact of Climate Change on Risk of Hunger
Integrated Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies
Capacity Building
Conclusions and Future Needs

Climate Change, Climate Variability and Climate Extremes: Agrometeorological Impact of Extreme Weather Events
Introduction
Understanding of Climate Change, Climate Variability and Climate Extremes
Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes
Phenomena Related to Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes
Impact on the Natural Physical Environment
Socio-economic Impact of Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes
Agrometeorological Impact of Extreme Weather Events and Mitigation Strategies
Implications and Future Needs

Livelihood Strategies of Farmers and Fishers under Changing Climate
Introduction
Food Security Concerning Small-scale Farmers and Fishers
Seasonal Forecasting
Water Harvesting
Farmers Adapting to Climate Change
Extreme Weather Events and Livelihood Concern
Building Resilience and Improved Livelihoods
Vulnerability of Subsistence Farmers, Pastoralists and Fisherfolk
Impact of Climate Change on the Livelihood of Fishers
Livelihood Diversification for Small-scale Farmers and Fishers
Conclusions and Ways Forward.

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. H.P. Das, former Deputy Director General of Meteorology of the India Meteorological Department, was in-charge of the Division of Agricultural Meteorology, Pune and in that capacity had been implementing the operational and research programmes of the Division. He has actively participated in many Agricultural Meteorology Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as Chairman/Leader/Member of several Working Groups and Expert Teams of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology. With over 35 years of experience in agrometeorological research and applications and teaching in various aspects of Agricultural Meteorology, Dr. Das has authored over 175 research papers and articles, as well as many book chapters and several other technical publications including WMO Technical Notes and Training materials. He is a recipient of the award of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology for his outstanding contributions and exceptional service to the commission. He is currently the Vice-President of the International Society for Agricultural Meteorology (INSAM).