Cloud Enterprise Architecture: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Cloud Enterprise Architecture

1st Edition

By Pethuru Raj

Auerbach Publications

528 pages | 72 B/W Illus.

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Cloud Enterprise Architecture examines enterprise architecture (EA) in the context of the surging popularity of Cloud computing. It explains the different kinds of desired transformations the architectural blocks of EA undergo in light of this strategically significant convergence. Chapters cover each of the contributing architectures of EA—business, information, application, integration, security, and technology—illustrating the current and impending implications of the Cloud on each.

Discussing the implications of the Cloud paradigm on EA, the book details the perceptible and positive changes that will affect EA design, governance, strategy, management, and sustenance. The author ties these topics together with chapters on Cloud integration and composition architecture. He also examines the Enterprise Cloud, Federated Clouds, and the vision to establish the InterCloud. Laying out a comprehensive strategy for planning and executing Cloud-inspired transformations, the book:

  • Explains how the Cloud changes and affects enterprise architecture design, governance, strategy, management, and sustenance
  • Presents helpful information on next-generation Cloud computing
  • Describes additional architectural types such as enterprise-scale integration, security, management, and governance architectures

This book is an ideal resource for enterprise architects, Cloud evangelists and enthusiasts, and Cloud application and service architects. Cloud center administrators, Cloud business executives, managers, and analysts will also find the book helpful and inspirational while formulating appropriate mechanisms and schemes for sound modernization and migration of traditional applications to Cloud infrastructures and platforms.


…a useful source of information for enterprise architects, managers, and directors of organizations, as well as students and researchers in the fields of Cloud computing and EA. It provides a thorough and timely investigation of the convergence of cloud computing, on one hand, and enterprise data, applications, and infrastructure architectures, on the other. It is a welcome addition to the body of existing knowledge in these fields and emerging new technologies.

—Zaigham Mahmood, School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Derby, UK

Table of Contents

Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises!


The Brewing IT Trends Technologies

Trekking toward the Smart World

Revisiting the Enterprise Journey

Dynamic Enterprises

Adaptive Enterprises

On-Demand Enterprises

Globally Integrated Enterprises

Liquid Enterprises

Proactive Enterprises

Connected Enterprises

Service-Oriented Enterprises

Service Thinking for Next-Generation Enterprises

The Service Paradigm

Service-Oriented Architecture

Enterprise-Scale Architectural Approaches

Elucidating SOEs

Cloud Enterprises

The Onset of Connected Clouds

Autonomic Clouds

Federated Clouds

The Intercloud

Ambient Cloud

Instant-On Enterprises

Enterprise-Class Attributes for Successful

Cloud Solutions

Extremely Integrated Enterprises

Smart Enterprises

The Enabling Mechanisms of Smart Enterprises

Service Computing

Advanced Analytics

Event-Driven Architecture

Big Data Computing

In-Memory Computing

Cloud Computing

Smarter Homes

Smarter Cars

Smarter Environments



Cloud-Inspired Enterprise Transformations!


The Cloud Scheme for Enterprise Success

Elucidating the Evolving Cloud Idea

Cloud Technologies

Cloud-Induced Innovations

Why Cloud Enablement and Empowerment?

Implementing Smarter Environments via Clouds

Application Domains

The Future

The Intercloud

Implications of the Cloud on Enterprise Strategy

Establishing a Cloud-Incorporated Business Strategy

New-Generation Business Models

The Business Process Journey

Service-Oriented Processes

Event-Driven Business Processes

Communication-Enabled Business Processes

Analytics-Attached Business Processes

Cloud-Impacted Business Processes

Transitioning to Cloud-Centric Enterprises:

The Tuning Methodology

Service Categorization

The Selection Criteria of Services

Leveraging EA Frameworks for an Enterprise-Wide and Long-Lasting Cloud Strategy

Utilizing a Hybrid Cloud

Pondering Cloud Modernization and Migration

Transitioning from Data Centers to Cloud Centers

Creating Cloud-Centric Enterprise Policies

Contract Management in the Cloud

Cloud Contract Characteristics

Cloud Participants

Role of EA in Defining the Contracts with CSPs and CSBs



Cloud-Instigated IT Transformations!


Explaining Cloud Infrastructures

Cloud Computing Infrastructure

Cloud Communications Infrastructure

Virtualization for the Communication Industry

The Cloud Inspires the UC Paradigm

Communication as a Service

A Briefing on Next-Generation Services

Emerging Cloud Types

Ambient Cloud

Service Infrastructures

Cloud Infrastructures

Cloud Infrastructure Evaluation Parameters

Cloud Infrastructure Capabilities

Cloud Infrastructure Solutions

Identity and Access Management Suite

Cloud Infrastructure Management Solutions

Automated Management

Resource Provisioning

Cloud Performance and Scalability

End-to-End Cloud Service Visibility

Security Management and Federation

Cloud SDP

Responsible Cloud Infrastructure

Clouds for Business Continuity

The Relevance of Private Clouds

The Emergence of Enterprise Clouds


Resource Slicing, Pooling, and Sharing

Clouds Are Lean and Green

Decoupling of Software from Hardware

Virtualized Data Storage and Management

Data and Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity

Automated Tools

Multitenancy and Shared Environment



Cloud EA: Frameworks and Platforms


Simplifying EA Development

Why EA Is the Preferred Approach

The Zachman Framework

The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)

A Content Model

Architecture Repository

TOGAF Reference Models

The Federal Enterprise Architecture

The Oracle EA Framework

The BA

Application Architecture

Information Architecture

Technology Architecture

People, Process, and Tools

IBM’s Actionable EA

EA Tools



Cloud Application Architecture


Cloud Application Architecture

Services as Enterprise Building Blocks

Amazing Differentiators of SOA

Key Drivers for NG-SOA

The Growth Trajectory of the SOA

Exemplary Enhancements in the Service Paradigm

Process-Centric SOA for Flexibility, Agility, and Adaptivity

Model-Driven SOA for Application Productivity and Portability

Event-Driven SOA for Proactive and Real-Time Systems

Service-Oriented BI

The SCA for Simplified Construction and Composition

Agent-Driven SOA for Awareness and Smartness

Semantic SOA for Automation and Dynamism

Service Virtualization for Simpler Service Plug and Play

Exciting Service Capabilities

Service Composition

Service Composites

Service Meshes

Service Mashups

Dynamic and Converged Service Infrastructures

Service Grids

SOA Fabrics

Cloud-Hosted Service Middleware

Middleware for Embedded SOA

Direct and Distinct Impacts of NG-SOA

The SOEs

Smart Hospital

Rich Enterprise Applications

Service-Oriented Business Applications

Dynamic Business Applications

Multienterprise Business Applications

Real-Time and Dynamic Enterprises

Integrated, Adaptive, and Modernized Enterprises



Cloud Data Architecture


A Perspective on Big-Data Computing

Why Big-Data Computing?

A Look at Big-Data Infrastructure

NoSQL Databases

Why NoSQL Databases?

Simplified Data Representation

End-to-End Transactions

Enterprise-Grade Durability

Classification of NoSQL Databases

Key-Value Stores

Column Family Databases

Document Databases

Graph Databases

Cloud Databases

The Hadoop Software Family

Functional Features of Big-Data Infrastructures

Acquisition of Big Data

Organizing Big Data

Analyzing Big Data

Information-Oriented Architecture for Cloud Environments

Characteristics of IOA

The IOA Ecosystem

Leading BI Applications

The BI Application Infrastructures

Data Storage Infrastructures

The BI Middleware

A Detailed Look at Data Integration

Types of Data Integration

Physical Data Integration

Virtual Data Integration

Comparison of EII versus ETL

Comparison of EAI versus ETL

Generic Criteria for Selecting a Data Integration Tool

Business Drivers for Data Integration

Top Five Functional Capabilities of Any Data Integration Solution

Data Movement with Core ETL

Data Movement with Next-Generation ELT

Data Synchronization

Data Quality

Data Management

Data Governance

Data Services

The SOA-Aware Data Services

Enterprise Data Mashups

Oracle’s Big-Data Solution

Hardware Components

Software Components

Cloud Analytics



Cloud Technology Architecture


Generic Cloud Types

Public Cloud

Private Cloud

Community Cloud

Hybrid Cloud

Next-Generation Connected Clouds

Cloud Middleware Deployment Scenarios

Cloud Composition and Collaboration

Cloud Orchestration

Cloud Collaboration

Scenarios for Cloud Brokers


Cloud Reference Architecture

Scenarios for the Cloud Management Broker

The Cloud Service Broker (CSB) Deployment Models

ESB Deployment Styles

Hub-and-Spoke Style

Distributed Service Bus

Variations in ESB Deployment

Peer-to-Peer ESB Deployment Model

Cloud-Ready Mule ESB

Cloud Appliances: The Deployment Method

Deployment Challenges




Cloud Deployment Strategy: The Formula

Step 1: Map the Network

Step 2: Classify Assets

Step 3: Map Assets to Cloud Deployment Models

Step 4: Evaluate Potential Cloud Service Models and Providers

The Future



Cloud Integration Architecture


Cloud Integration: Origin and Evolution

The Emergence of "IT as a Service"

Integration as a Service

Approaches for Cloud Integration

Integration Approaches

Pervasive Software, Inc.

Impacts of the Cloud Paradigm

The Cloud Integration Enigma

Cloud Integration Concerns and Challenges

Cloud Integration Scenarios

Integration within a Public Cloud

Homogeneous Clouds

Heterogeneous Clouds

Restricted Access

Dynamic Resources


Cloud Integration: Methodologies and Life Cycle

Cloud Integration Methodologies

Characteristics of Cloud Integration Solutions

Data Integration Engineering Life Cycle

Cloud Integration Products and Platforms


Boomi Software

Bungee Connect

OpSource Connect


Windows Azure AppFabric


Oracle SOA Suite 11g

Magic Software’s iBOLT


Adeptia Salesforce Integration Accelerator

Online MQ



Microsoft ISB

Cloud Integration Appliances

Cast Iron Systems, Inc.

Cloud Interoperation Methods

Unified Cloud Interface/Cloud Broker

Enterprise Cloud Orchestration Platform

Peer-to-Peer Approach for Cloud Integration

Benefits of Hybrid and p2p Cloud-Based ESB Architecture

Cloud Integration Services

Informatica On-Demand

Businesses-to-Business Integration Services

Cloud-Based Enterprise Mashup Integration Services for B2B Scenarios

Enterprise Mashup Platforms and Tools

Message Queue

Persistent Storage

Translation Engine

Interaction between Mashup Services

A Framework of Sensor-Cloud Integration

Stream Monitoring and Processing Component

Registry Component

Analyzer Component

The DC


The PR

The CA



Cloud Management Architecture


Cloud Service Management

Why Do Cloud Resources Need to Be Managed?

IT Service Management

Service Assets and Configuration Management

Service Catalog Management and Request Fulfillment

Financial Management

Challenges Involved in CSM

A Sample Scenario

Complications of Cloud Centers

Complexity Moderation Techniques and Tips

CSM Processes

Change Management

Problem Management

Release Management

Security Management

Capacity Management

Service Continuity Management

Service Level Management

Cloud Management Solutions

Key Attributes of Cloud Management Solutions

Cloud Management Software Benefits

The BMC Cloud Management Solution

The VMware and NetApp Combination

The BMC and VMware Combination

Automation of CMDB for Instant Success in Change Management

Innovations in Analytics and Correlation for Proactive Management and Efficient Root Cause Analysis

Service Discovery and Impact Analysis to Align IT with Business

Semantic Technologies for Cloud information Management

Data Integration

Collaborative Documentation and Annotation

Intelligent Information Access and Analytics

The eCloudManager Ontology



Cloud Security Architecture (CSA)


Security Implications of Cloud Computing

Key Cloud Security Issues

Cloud Data Confidentiality

Cloud Data Integrity

Cloud System Availability

Virtualization-Induced Cloud Security Issues

Security Threats of the Intercloud

Cloud Security Solutions

Crafting a Comprehensive Threat Model

Security-Enablement Approaches

Cloud Infrastructure Security

Information Security

Identity and Access Management

End-User Devices Security

Emerging Cloud Security Mechanisms

Policy-Based Cloud Security Enforcement (Ulrich Lang, ObjectSecurity, USA)

Why Model-Driven Security (MDS)?

Policy as a Service

Why Policy-Based Automation at the Cloud?

Information Lifecycle Management in the Cloud

Data Dependability

Data Location

Data Isolation

Data Recovery and Restoration

Data Discovery

Data Aggregation and Inference

Data Abolition

Trusted Cloud Computing

Cloud Security Patterns

Security Gateways

Monitoring and Logging

Security Token Services

Policy Enforcement Points

Cloud Security Best Practices

Assessment and Reliability Audits

Security Compliance

Cloud Risk Management Framework

Why the SaaS-based "Security as a Service" Model?

Security as a Service

Security Compliance as a Service


Business Continuity

Global Coverage

Cloud Security Proprietary Solutions

Joyent SmartOS: Hardened Kernel

SmartMachine Security

Security Gateways

Navajo Systems Virtual Private SaaS

Vormetric Data Security

Intel Service Gateway



Cloud Governance Architecture


Emergence of Cloud Services and Applications

Clouds: The Robust and Resilient Platform for Business Services

Evolution of Governance Principles, Policies, Practices, and Products

SOA Governance

Strong and Sustainable Governance for Agility

Data Governance

Define What Data Governance Means to an Organization

Determine Which Data Management Functions to Include

Overview of Cloud Governance

Design-Time Cloud Governance

Runtime Cloud Governance

Policies for Runtime Cloud Governance

Policy Engineering

Policy Enforcement

Virtual Policy Enforcement Point

Policy Enforcement on Outgoing Traffic

Policy Enforcement on Incoming Traffic

Policy Enforcement on Cloud Services

A Methodology for Cloud Governance

Cloud Evaluation Phase

Cloud Governance Definition Phase

Develop Relationship with Providers

Cloud Governance Execution Phase

Build Management and Monitoring Layer

Set Up PEPs in DMZ

Deploy Virtual PEPs in the Cloud

Integrate Heavy Components Later

Operational and Review Phase

Why is Cloud Governance Imperative?

Guaranteeing Reliability

Managing Cloud Services

Managing Scale

Managing Cloud Ecosystems

Cloud Governance: Best Practices

Service Value Chain Enablement

Process Innovation

Risks Identification and Control

Building Trust

Cloud Governance Solutions

Things to Look for in a Cloud Governance Solution

Vordel CSB

Elements of Cloud Governance

Analytics of Cloud Usage

Content Analysis


Monitoring SLA

Traffic Throttling

Event Alerting

Identity as the Key

Connecting an Enterprise to a Cloud

Composition of Cloud Services

Enabling the CSP

Enabling Cloud Service Brokerages



Cloud Onboarding Best Practices


A Perspective on Cloud Onboarding

Benefits of Cloud Onboarding

Application Migration: A Case Study

Cloud Onboarding Use Cases

Top Considerations for Cloud Onboarding

A Cloud Onboarding Process

The Evaluate Step

The Select Step

The Migrate Step

Application Evaluation Criteria

Application Dependency Mapping

The Optimize Step

The Operate Step

Cloud Onboarding Services

Emergence of Cloud Enterprises

Cloud Advisory and Advocacy Services

Cloud Design Service

Cloud Development Service

Cloud Management and Operations

Cloud Implementation and Migration Services

Cloud Protection Service

Cloud Support Services

Cloud Center Transformation Implementation Services

The Roles of the Cloud in Structuring and Sustaining Next-Generation Business Enterprises




About the Author

Having obtained the competitive UGC research fellowship, Pethuru Raj, PhDsuccessfully obtained a PhD from Anna University, Chennai, India. He then obtained a CSIR fellowship to work as a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Computer Science and Automation (CSA), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore. Thereafter, he was granted a couple of international fellowships (JSPS and JST) to work as a research scientist for 3 years in two leading Japanese universities. Dr. Raj, worked as a lead architect in the corporate research (CR) division of Robert Bosch, India, for 1.5 years.

Dr. Rajhasmore than 12 years of IT industry experience. Primarily, he has contributed as a technical architect for 8 years and as a software product architect for 4 years. Currently, he is working as an enterprise architecture (EA) consultant focusing on EA-inspired business transformation capabilities. His ultimate aim is to provide technology advisory services to worldwide organizations and business enterprises to enable a smooth transition to be smarter in their operations, offerings, and outputs, by articulating and empowering them to adopt, adapt, and apply proven, potential, and promising technologies, architectural styles, and process optimization methods.

Dr. Rajhas acquired good knowledge on some emerging technologies such as cloud computing, service-oriented architecture (SOA), event-driven architecture (EDA), and enterprise architecture (EA). Also, he has gleaned reusable knowledge in big data computing and Hadoop, realtime and real-world cloud analytics, machine-to-machine (M2M) integration/cyber physical systems (CPS), high-performance system design, and the development methods of smartphone applications. He has made use of the opportunities that came my way to focus on a few business domains, including telecommunication, retail, government, energy, and health care. Dr. Raj has contributed book chapters for a number of technology books that were edited by internationally acclaimed professors and published by leading publishing houses.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
COMPUTERS / Software Development & Engineering / General
COMPUTERS / Internet / General