1st Edition

Cloud Enterprise Architecture

By Pethuru Raj Copyright 2013
    528 Pages 72 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    528 Pages 72 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    Cloud Enterprise Architecture examines enterprise architecture (EA) in the context of the surging popularity of Cloud computing. It explains the different kinds of desired transformations the architectural blocks of EA undergo in light of this strategically significant convergence. Chapters cover each of the contributing architectures of EA—business, information, application, integration, security, and technology—illustrating the current and impending implications of the Cloud on each.

    Discussing the implications of the Cloud paradigm on EA, the book details the perceptible and positive changes that will affect EA design, governance, strategy, management, and sustenance. The author ties these topics together with chapters on Cloud integration and composition architecture. He also examines the Enterprise Cloud, Federated Clouds, and the vision to establish the InterCloud. Laying out a comprehensive strategy for planning and executing Cloud-inspired transformations, the book:

    • Explains how the Cloud changes and affects enterprise architecture design, governance, strategy, management, and sustenance
    • Presents helpful information on next-generation Cloud computing
    • Describes additional architectural types such as enterprise-scale integration, security, management, and governance architectures

    This book is an ideal resource for enterprise architects, Cloud evangelists and enthusiasts, and Cloud application and service architects. Cloud center administrators, Cloud business executives, managers, and analysts will also find the book helpful and inspirational while formulating appropriate mechanisms and schemes for sound modernization and migration of traditional applications to Cloud infrastructures and platforms.

    Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises!
    The Brewing IT Trends Technologies
    Trekking toward the Smart World
    Revisiting the Enterprise Journey
         Dynamic Enterprises
         Adaptive Enterprises
         On-Demand Enterprises
         Globally Integrated Enterprises
         Liquid Enterprises
         Proactive Enterprises
         Connected Enterprises
    Service-Oriented Enterprises
         Service Thinking for Next-Generation Enterprises
         The Service Paradigm
         Service-Oriented Architecture
         Enterprise-Scale Architectural Approaches
         Elucidating SOEs
    Cloud Enterprises
         The Onset of Connected Clouds
         Autonomic Clouds
         Federated Clouds
         The Intercloud
         Ambient Cloud
         Instant-On Enterprises
         Enterprise-Class Attributes for Successful
         Cloud Solutions
         Extremely Integrated Enterprises
    Smart Enterprises
    The Enabling Mechanisms of Smart Enterprises
         Service Computing
         Advanced Analytics
         Event-Driven Architecture
         Big Data Computing
         In-Memory Computing
         Cloud Computing
              Smarter Homes
              Smarter Cars
              Smarter Environments

    Cloud-Inspired Enterprise Transformations!
    The Cloud Scheme for Enterprise Success
    Elucidating the Evolving Cloud Idea
         Cloud Technologies
         Cloud-Induced Innovations
         Why Cloud Enablement and Empowerment?
         Implementing Smarter Environments via Clouds
         Application Domains
         The Future
         The Intercloud
    Implications of the Cloud on Enterprise Strategy
    Establishing a Cloud-Incorporated Business Strategy
         New-Generation Business Models
         The Business Process Journey
         Service-Oriented Processes
         Event-Driven Business Processes
         Communication-Enabled Business Processes
         Analytics-Attached Business Processes
         Cloud-Impacted Business Processes
    Transitioning to Cloud-Centric Enterprises:
    The Tuning Methodology
         Service Categorization
         The Selection Criteria of Services
         Leveraging EA Frameworks for an Enterprise-Wide and Long-Lasting Cloud Strategy
         Utilizing a Hybrid Cloud
         Pondering Cloud Modernization and Migration
         Transitioning from Data Centers to Cloud Centers
         Creating Cloud-Centric Enterprise Policies
    Contract Management in the Cloud
         Cloud Contract Characteristics
         Cloud Participants
         Role of EA in Defining the Contracts with CSPs and CSBs

    Cloud-Instigated IT Transformations!
    Explaining Cloud Infrastructures
         Cloud Computing Infrastructure
         Cloud Communications Infrastructure
         Virtualization for the Communication Industry
         The Cloud Inspires the UC Paradigm
         Communication as a Service
    A Briefing on Next-Generation Services
         Emerging Cloud Types
         Ambient Cloud
    Service Infrastructures
    Cloud Infrastructures
         Cloud Infrastructure Evaluation Parameters
         Cloud Infrastructure Capabilities
    Cloud Infrastructure Solutions
         Identity and Access Management Suite
         Cloud Infrastructure Management Solutions
         Automated Management
         Resource Provisioning
         Cloud Performance and Scalability 
         End-to-End Cloud Service Visibility
         Security Management and Federation
         Cloud SDP
         Responsible Cloud Infrastructure
    Clouds for Business Continuity
    The Relevance of Private Clouds
    The Emergence of Enterprise Clouds
         Resource Slicing, Pooling, and Sharing
         Clouds Are Lean and Green
         Decoupling of Software from Hardware
         Virtualized Data Storage and Management
         Data and Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity
         Automated Tools
         Multitenancy and Shared Environment

    Cloud EA: Frameworks and Platforms
    Simplifying EA Development
         Why EA Is the Preferred Approach
    The Zachman Framework
    The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
         A Content Model
         Architecture Repository
         TOGAF Reference Models
    The Federal Enterprise Architecture
    The Oracle EA Framework
         The BA
         Application Architecture
         Information Architecture
         Technology Architecture
         People, Process, and Tools
    IBM’s Actionable EA
    EA Tools

    Cloud Application Architecture
    Cloud Application Architecture
    Services as Enterprise Building Blocks
    Amazing Differentiators of SOA
    Key Drivers for NG-SOA
         The Growth Trajectory of the SOA
    Exemplary Enhancements in the Service Paradigm
         Process-Centric SOA for Flexibility, Agility, and Adaptivity
         Model-Driven SOA for Application Productivity and Portability
         Event-Driven SOA for Proactive and Real-Time Systems
         Service-Oriented BI
         The SCA for Simplified Construction and Composition
         Agent-Driven SOA for Awareness and Smartness
         Semantic SOA for Automation and Dynamism
         Service Virtualization for Simpler Service Plug and Play
    Exciting Service Capabilities
         Service Composition
         Service Composites
         Service Meshes
              Service Mashups
    Dynamic and Converged Service Infrastructures
         Service Grids
         SOA Fabrics
         Cloud-Hosted Service Middleware
         Middleware for Embedded SOA
    Direct and Distinct Impacts of NG-SOA
         The SOEs
         Smart Hospital
         Rich Enterprise Applications
         Service-Oriented Business Applications
         Dynamic Business Applications
         Multienterprise Business Applications
         Real-Time and Dynamic Enterprises
         Integrated, Adaptive, and Modernized Enterprises

    Cloud Data Architecture
    A Perspective on Big-Data Computing
         Why Big-Data Computing?
    A Look at Big-Data Infrastructure
         NoSQL Databases
         Why NoSQL Databases?
         Simplified Data Representation
         End-to-End Transactions
         Enterprise-Grade Durability
         Classification of NoSQL Databases
              Key-Value Stores
              Column Family Databases
              Document Databases
              Graph Databases
              Cloud Databases
    The Hadoop Software Family
         Functional Features of Big-Data Infrastructures
         Acquisition of Big Data
         Organizing Big Data
         Analyzing Big Data
    Information-Oriented Architecture for Cloud Environments
         Characteristics of IOA
         The IOA Ecosystem
              Leading BI Applications
              The BI Application Infrastructures
              Data Storage Infrastructures
              The BI Middleware
    A Detailed Look at Data Integration
         Types of Data Integration
              Physical Data Integration
              Virtual Data Integration
         Comparison of EII versus ETL
         Comparison of EAI versus ETL
         Generic Criteria for Selecting a Data Integration Tool
         Business Drivers for Data Integration
         Top Five Functional Capabilities of Any Data Integration Solution
              Data Movement with Core ETL
              Data Movement with Next-Generation ELT
              Data Synchronization
              Data Quality
              Data Management
              Data Governance
    Data Services
         The SOA-Aware Data Services
    Enterprise Data Mashups
    Oracle’s Big-Data Solution
         Hardware Components
         Software Components
    Cloud Analytics

    Cloud Technology Architecture
    Generic Cloud Types
         Public Cloud
         Private Cloud
         Community Cloud
         Hybrid Cloud
    Next-Generation Connected Clouds
    Cloud Middleware Deployment Scenarios
         Cloud Composition and Collaboration
              Cloud Orchestration
              Cloud Collaboration
         Scenarios for Cloud Brokers
         Cloud Reference Architecture
          Scenarios for the Cloud Management Broker
    The Cloud Service Broker (CSB) Deployment Models
         ESB Deployment Styles
              Hub-and-Spoke Style
              Distributed Service Bus
         Variations in ESB Deployment
         Peer-to-Peer ESB Deployment Model
         Cloud-Ready Mule ESB
    Cloud Appliances: The Deployment Method
         Deployment Challenges
    Cloud Deployment Strategy: The Formula
         Step 1: Map the Network
         Step 2: Classify Assets
         Step 3: Map Assets to Cloud Deployment Models
         Step 4: Evaluate Potential Cloud Service Models and Providers
    The Future

    Cloud Integration Architecture
    Cloud Integration: Origin and Evolution
         The Emergence of "IT as a Service"
         Integration as a Service
    Approaches for Cloud Integration
         Integration Approaches
         Pervasive Software, Inc. 
         Impacts of the Cloud Paradigm
         The Cloud Integration Enigma
    Cloud Integration Concerns and Challenges
         Cloud Integration Scenarios
              Integration within a Public Cloud
              Homogeneous Clouds
              Heterogeneous Clouds
         Restricted Access
         Dynamic Resources
    Cloud Integration: Methodologies and Life Cycle
         Cloud Integration Methodologies
         Characteristics of Cloud Integration Solutions
         Data Integration Engineering Life Cycle
    Cloud Integration Products and Platforms
         Boomi Software
         Bungee Connect
         OpSource Connect
         Windows Azure AppFabric
         Oracle SOA Suite 11g
         Magic Software’s iBOLT
         Adeptia Salesforce Integration Accelerator
         Online MQ
         Microsoft ISB
    Cloud Integration Appliances
         Cast Iron Systems, Inc.
    Cloud Interoperation Methods
         Unified Cloud Interface/Cloud Broker
         Enterprise Cloud Orchestration Platform
         Peer-to-Peer Approach for Cloud Integration
         Benefits of Hybrid and p2p Cloud-Based ESB Architecture
    Cloud Integration Services
         Informatica On-Demand
         Businesses-to-Business Integration Services
         Cloud-Based Enterprise Mashup Integration Services for B2B Scenarios
         Enterprise Mashup Platforms and Tools
              Message Queue
              Persistent Storage
              Translation Engine
         Interaction between Mashup Services
    A Framework of Sensor-Cloud Integration
         Stream Monitoring and Processing Component
         Registry Component
         Analyzer Component
         The DC
         The PR
         The CA

    Cloud Management Architecture
    Cloud Service Management
         Why Do Cloud Resources Need to Be Managed?
         IT Service Management
         Service Assets and Configuration Management
         Service Catalog Management and Request Fulfillment
         Financial Management
    Challenges Involved in CSM
         A Sample Scenario
         Complications of Cloud Centers
         Complexity Moderation Techniques and Tips
    CSM Processes
         Change Management
         Problem Management
         Release Management
         Security Management
         Capacity Management
         Service Continuity Management
         Service Level Management
    Cloud Management Solutions
         Key Attributes of Cloud Management Solutions
         Cloud Management Software Benefits
         The BMC Cloud Management Solution
         The VMware and NetApp Combination
         The BMC and VMware Combination
         Automation of CMDB for Instant Success in Change Management
         Innovations in Analytics and Correlation for Proactive Management and Efficient Root Cause Analysis
         Service Discovery and Impact Analysis to Align IT with Business
    Semantic Technologies for Cloud information Management
         Data Integration
         Collaborative Documentation and Annotation
         Intelligent Information Access and Analytics
         The eCloudManager Ontology

    Cloud Security Architecture (CSA)
    Security Implications of Cloud Computing
    Key Cloud Security Issues
         Cloud Data Confidentiality
         Cloud Data Integrity
         Cloud System Availability
    Virtualization-Induced Cloud Security Issues
         Security Threats of the Intercloud
    Cloud Security Solutions
         Crafting a Comprehensive Threat Model
         Security-Enablement Approaches
              Cloud Infrastructure Security
              Information Security
              Identity and Access Management
              End-User Devices Security
    Emerging Cloud Security Mechanisms
         Policy-Based Cloud Security Enforcement (Ulrich Lang, ObjectSecurity, USA)
         Why Model-Driven Security (MDS)?
         Policy as a Service
         Why Policy-Based Automation at the Cloud? 
    Information Lifecycle Management in the Cloud
         Data Dependability
         Data Location
         Data Isolation
         Data Recovery and Restoration
         Data Discovery
         Data Aggregation and Inference
         Data Abolition
    Trusted Cloud Computing
    Cloud Security Patterns
         Security Gateways
         Monitoring and Logging
         Security Token Services
              Policy Enforcement Points
         Cloud Security Best Practices
              Assessment and Reliability Audits
              Security Compliance
              Cloud Risk Management Framework
    Why the SaaS-based "Security as a Service" Model?
         Security as a Service
         Security Compliance as a Service
         Business Continuity
         Global Coverage
    Cloud Security Proprietary Solutions
         Joyent SmartOS: Hardened Kernel
              SmartMachine Security
    Security Gateways
         Navajo Systems Virtual Private SaaS
         Vormetric Data Security
         Intel Service Gateway

    Cloud Governance Architecture
    Emergence of Cloud Services and Applications
         Clouds: The Robust and Resilient Platform for Business Services
    Evolution of Governance Principles, Policies, Practices, and Products
         SOA Governance
         Strong and Sustainable Governance for Agility
         Data Governance
              Define What Data Governance Means to an Organization
         Determine Which Data Management Functions to Include
    Overview of Cloud Governance
         Design-Time Cloud Governance
         Runtime Cloud Governance
         Policies for Runtime Cloud Governance
         Policy Engineering
         Policy Enforcement
         Virtual Policy Enforcement Point
         Policy Enforcement on Outgoing Traffic
         Policy Enforcement on Incoming Traffic
         Policy Enforcement on Cloud Services
    A Methodology for Cloud Governance
         Cloud Evaluation Phase
         Cloud Governance Definition Phase
              Develop Relationship with Providers
         Cloud Governance Execution Phase
              Build Management and Monitoring Layer
              Set Up PEPs in DMZ
              Deploy Virtual PEPs in the Cloud
              Integrate Heavy Components Later
         Operational and Review Phase
    Why is Cloud Governance Imperative?
         Guaranteeing Reliability
         Managing Cloud Services
         Managing Scale
         Managing Cloud Ecosystems
    Cloud Governance: Best Practices
         Service Value Chain Enablement
         Process Innovation
         Risks Identification and Control
         Building Trust
    Cloud Governance Solutions
         Things to Look for in a Cloud Governance Solution
    Vordel CSB
         Elements of Cloud Governance
         Analytics of Cloud Usage
         Content Analysis
         Monitoring SLA
         Traffic Throttling
         Event Alerting
         Identity as the Key
         Connecting an Enterprise to a Cloud
         Composition of Cloud Services
         Enabling the CSP
         Enabling Cloud Service Brokerages

    Cloud Onboarding Best Practices
    A Perspective on Cloud Onboarding
         Benefits of Cloud Onboarding
         Application Migration: A Case Study
         Cloud Onboarding Use Cases
         Top Considerations for Cloud Onboarding
    A Cloud Onboarding Process
         The Evaluate Step
         The Select Step
         The Migrate Step
    Application Evaluation Criteria
    Application Dependency Mapping
         The Optimize Step
         The Operate Step
    Cloud Onboarding Services
         Emergence of Cloud Enterprises
    Cloud Advisory and Advocacy Services
         Cloud Design Service     
         Cloud Development Service
         Cloud Management and Operations
         Cloud Implementation and Migration Services
         Cloud Protection Service
         Cloud Support Services
    Cloud Center Transformation Implementation Services
         The Roles of the Cloud in Structuring and Sustaining Next-Generation Business Enterprises



    Having obtained the competitive UGC research fellowship, Pethuru Raj, PhD successfully obtained a PhD from Anna University, Chennai, India. He then obtained a CSIR fellowship to work as a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Computer Science and Automation (CSA), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore. Thereafter, he was granted a couple of international fellowships (JSPS and JST) to work as a research scientist for 3 years in two leading Japanese universities. Dr. Raj, worked as a lead architect in the corporate research (CR) division of Robert Bosch, India, for 1.5 years.

    Dr. Raj has more than 12 years of IT industry experience. Primarily, he has contributed as a technical architect for 8 years and as a software product architect for 4 years. Currently, he is working as an enterprise architecture (EA) consultant focusing on EA-inspired business transformation capabilities. His ultimate aim is to provide technology advisory services to worldwide organizations and business enterprises to enable a smooth transition to be smarter in their operations, offerings, and outputs, by articulating and empowering them to adopt, adapt, and apply proven, potential, and promising technologies, architectural styles, and process optimization methods.

    Dr. Raj has acquired good knowledge on some emerging technologies such as cloud computing, service-oriented architecture (SOA), event-driven architecture (EDA), and enterprise architecture (EA). Also, he has gleaned reusable knowledge in big data computing and Hadoop, realtime and real-world cloud analytics, machine-to-machine (M2M) integration/cyber physical systems (CPS), high-performance system design, and the development methods of smartphone applications. He has made use of the opportunities that came my way to focus on a few business domains, including telecommunication, retail, government, energy, and health care. Dr. Raj has contributed book chapters for a number of technology books that were edited by internationally acclaimed professors and published by leading publishing houses.

    …a useful source of information for enterprise architects, managers, and directors of organizations, as well as students and researchers in the fields of Cloud computing and EA. It provides a thorough and timely investigation of the convergence of cloud computing, on one hand, and enterprise data, applications, and infrastructure architectures, on the other. It is a welcome addition to the body of existing knowledge in these fields and emerging new technologies.
    —Zaigham Mahmood, School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Derby, UK