Cloud Enterprise Architecture  book cover
1st Edition

Cloud Enterprise Architecture

ISBN 9781138374652
Published September 18, 2018 by Auerbach Publications
528 Pages 72 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Cloud Enterprise Architecture examines enterprise architecture (EA) in the context of the surging popularity of Cloud computing. It explains the different kinds of desired transformations the architectural blocks of EA undergo in light of this strategically significant convergence. Chapters cover each of the contributing architectures of EA—business, information, application, integration, security, and technology—illustrating the current and impending implications of the Cloud on each.

Discussing the implications of the Cloud paradigm on EA, the book details the perceptible and positive changes that will affect EA design, governance, strategy, management, and sustenance. The author ties these topics together with chapters on Cloud integration and composition architecture. He also examines the Enterprise Cloud, Federated Clouds, and the vision to establish the InterCloud. Laying out a comprehensive strategy for planning and executing Cloud-inspired transformations, the book:

  • Explains how the Cloud changes and affects enterprise architecture design, governance, strategy, management, and sustenance
  • Presents helpful information on next-generation Cloud computing
  • Describes additional architectural types such as enterprise-scale integration, security, management, and governance architectures

This book is an ideal resource for enterprise architects, Cloud evangelists and enthusiasts, and Cloud application and service architects. Cloud center administrators, Cloud business executives, managers, and analysts will also find the book helpful and inspirational while formulating appropriate mechanisms and schemes for sound modernization and migration of traditional applications to Cloud infrastructures and platforms.

Table of Contents

Cloud-Enabled Smart Enterprises!
The Brewing IT Trends Technologies
Trekking toward the Smart World
Revisiting the Enterprise Journey
     Dynamic Enterprises
     Adaptive Enterprises
     On-Demand Enterprises
     Globally Integrated Enterprises
     Liquid Enterprises
     Proactive Enterprises
     Connected Enterprises
Service-Oriented Enterprises
     Service Thinking for Next-Generation Enterprises
     The Service Paradigm
     Service-Oriented Architecture
     Enterprise-Scale Architectural Approaches
     Elucidating SOEs
Cloud Enterprises
     The Onset of Connected Clouds
     Autonomic Clouds
     Federated Clouds
     The Intercloud
     Ambient Cloud
     Instant-On Enterprises
     Enterprise-Class Attributes for Successful
     Cloud Solutions
     Extremely Integrated Enterprises
Smart Enterprises
The Enabling Mechanisms of Smart Enterprises
     Service Computing
     Advanced Analytics
     Event-Driven Architecture
     Big Data Computing
     In-Memory Computing
     Cloud Computing
          Smarter Homes
          Smarter Cars
          Smarter Environments

Cloud-Inspired Enterprise Transformations!
The Cloud Scheme for Enterprise Success
Elucidating the Evolving Cloud Idea
     Cloud Technologies
     Cloud-Induced Innovations
     Why Cloud Enablement and Empowerment?
     Implementing Smarter Environments via Clouds
     Application Domains
     The Future
     The Intercloud
Implications of the Cloud on Enterprise Strategy
Establishing a Cloud-Incorporated Business Strategy
     New-Generation Business Models
     The Business Process Journey
     Service-Oriented Processes
     Event-Driven Business Processes
     Communication-Enabled Business Processes
     Analytics-Attached Business Processes
     Cloud-Impacted Business Processes
Transitioning to Cloud-Centric Enterprises:
The Tuning Methodology
     Service Categorization
     The Selection Criteria of Services
     Leveraging EA Frameworks for an Enterprise-Wide and Long-Lasting Cloud Strategy
     Utilizing a Hybrid Cloud
     Pondering Cloud Modernization and Migration
     Transitioning from Data Centers to Cloud Centers
     Creating Cloud-Centric Enterprise Policies
Contract Management in the Cloud
     Cloud Contract Characteristics
     Cloud Participants
     Role of EA in Defining the Contracts with CSPs and CSBs

Cloud-Instigated IT Transformations!
Explaining Cloud Infrastructures
     Cloud Computing Infrastructure
     Cloud Communications Infrastructure
     Virtualization for the Communication Industry
     The Cloud Inspires the UC Paradigm
     Communication as a Service
A Briefing on Next-Generation Services
     Emerging Cloud Types
     Ambient Cloud
Service Infrastructures
Cloud Infrastructures
     Cloud Infrastructure Evaluation Parameters
     Cloud Infrastructure Capabilities
Cloud Infrastructure Solutions
     Identity and Access Management Suite
     Cloud Infrastructure Management Solutions
     Automated Management
     Resource Provisioning
     Cloud Performance and Scalability 
     End-to-End Cloud Service Visibility
     Security Management and Federation
     Cloud SDP
     Responsible Cloud Infrastructure
Clouds for Business Continuity
The Relevance of Private Clouds
The Emergence of Enterprise Clouds
     Resource Slicing, Pooling, and Sharing
     Clouds Are Lean and Green
     Decoupling of Software from Hardware
     Virtualized Data Storage and Management
     Data and Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity
     Automated Tools
     Multitenancy and Shared Environment

Cloud EA: Frameworks and Platforms
Simplifying EA Development
     Why EA Is the Preferred Approach
The Zachman Framework
The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
     A Content Model
     Architecture Repository
     TOGAF Reference Models
The Federal Enterprise Architecture
The Oracle EA Framework
     The BA
     Application Architecture
     Information Architecture
     Technology Architecture
     People, Process, and Tools
IBM’s Actionable EA
EA Tools

Cloud Application Architecture
Cloud Application Architecture
Services as Enterprise Building Blocks
Amazing Differentiators of SOA
Key Drivers for NG-SOA
     The Growth Trajectory of the SOA
Exemplary Enhancements in the Service Paradigm
     Process-Centric SOA for Flexibility, Agility, and Adaptivity
     Model-Driven SOA for Application Productivity and Portability
     Event-Driven SOA for Proactive and Real-Time Systems
     Service-Oriented BI
     The SCA for Simplified Construction and Composition
     Agent-Driven SOA for Awareness and Smartness
     Semantic SOA for Automation and Dynamism
     Service Virtualization for Simpler Service Plug and Play
Exciting Service Capabilities
     Service Composition
     Service Composites
     Service Meshes
          Service Mashups
Dynamic and Converged Service Infrastructures
     Service Grids
     SOA Fabrics
     Cloud-Hosted Service Middleware
     Middleware for Embedded SOA
Direct and Distinct Impacts of NG-SOA
     The SOEs
     Smart Hospital
     Rich Enterprise Applications
     Service-Oriented Business Applications
     Dynamic Business Applications
     Multienterprise Business Applications
     Real-Time and Dynamic Enterprises
     Integrated, Adaptive, and Modernized Enterprises

Cloud Data Architecture
A Perspective on Big-Data Computing
     Why Big-Data Computing?
A Look at Big-Data Infrastructure
     NoSQL Databases
     Why NoSQL Databases?
     Simplified Data Representation
     End-to-End Transactions
     Enterprise-Grade Durability
     Classification of NoSQL Databases
          Key-Value Stores
          Column Family Databases
          Document Databases
          Graph Databases
          Cloud Databases
The Hadoop Software Family
     Functional Features of Big-Data Infrastructures
     Acquisition of Big Data
     Organizing Big Data
     Analyzing Big Data
Information-Oriented Architecture for Cloud Environments
     Characteristics of IOA
     The IOA Ecosystem
          Leading BI Applications
          The BI Application Infrastructures
          Data Storage Infrastructures
          The BI Middleware
A Detailed Look at Data Integration
     Types of Data Integration
          Physical Data Integration
          Virtual Data Integration
     Comparison of EII versus ETL
     Comparison of EAI versus ETL
     Generic Criteria for Selecting a Data Integration Tool
     Business Drivers for Data Integration
     Top Five Functional Capabilities of Any Data Integration Solution
          Data Movement with Core ETL
          Data Movement with Next-Generation ELT
          Data Synchronization
          Data Quality
          Data Management
          Data Governance
Data Services
     The SOA-Aware Data Services
Enterprise Data Mashups
Oracle’s Big-Data Solution
     Hardware Components
     Software Components
Cloud Analytics

Cloud Technology Architecture
Generic Cloud Types
     Public Cloud
     Private Cloud
     Community Cloud
     Hybrid Cloud
Next-Generation Connected Clouds
Cloud Middleware Deployment Scenarios
     Cloud Composition and Collaboration
          Cloud Orchestration
          Cloud Collaboration
     Scenarios for Cloud Brokers
     Cloud Reference Architecture
      Scenarios for the Cloud Management Broker
The Cloud Service Broker (CSB) Deployment Models
     ESB Deployment Styles
          Hub-and-Spoke Style
          Distributed Service Bus
     Variations in ESB Deployment
     Peer-to-Peer ESB Deployment Model
     Cloud-Ready Mule ESB
Cloud Appliances: The Deployment Method
     Deployment Challenges
Cloud Deployment Strategy: The Formula
     Step 1: Map the Network
     Step 2: Classify Assets
     Step 3: Map Assets to Cloud Deployment Models
     Step 4: Evaluate Potential Cloud Service Models and Providers
The Future

Cloud Integration Architecture
Cloud Integration: Origin and Evolution
     The Emergence of "IT as a Service"
     Integration as a Service
Approaches for Cloud Integration
     Integration Approaches
     Pervasive Software, Inc. 
     Impacts of the Cloud Paradigm
     The Cloud Integration Enigma
Cloud Integration Concerns and Challenges
     Cloud Integration Scenarios
          Integration within a Public Cloud
          Homogeneous Clouds
          Heterogeneous Clouds
     Restricted Access
     Dynamic Resources
Cloud Integration: Methodologies and Life Cycle
     Cloud Integration Methodologies
     Characteristics of Cloud Integration Solutions
     Data Integration Engineering Life Cycle
Cloud Integration Products and Platforms
     Boomi Software
     Bungee Connect
     OpSource Connect
     Windows Azure AppFabric
     Oracle SOA Suite 11g
     Magic Software’s iBOLT
     Adeptia Salesforce Integration Accelerator
     Online MQ
     Microsoft ISB
Cloud Integration Appliances
     Cast Iron Systems, Inc.
Cloud Interoperation Methods
     Unified Cloud Interface/Cloud Broker
     Enterprise Cloud Orchestration Platform
     Peer-to-Peer Approach for Cloud Integration
     Benefits of Hybrid and p2p Cloud-Based ESB Architecture
Cloud Integration Services
     Informatica On-Demand
     Businesses-to-Business Integration Services
     Cloud-Based Enterprise Mashup Integration Services for B2B Scenarios
     Enterprise Mashup Platforms and Tools
          Message Queue
          Persistent Storage
          Translation Engine
     Interaction between Mashup Services
A Framework of Sensor-Cloud Integration
     Stream Monitoring and Processing Component
     Registry Component
     Analyzer Component
     The DC
     The PR
     The CA

Cloud Management Architecture
Cloud Service Management
     Why Do Cloud Resources Need to Be Managed?
     IT Service Management
     Service Assets and Configuration Management
     Service Catalog Management and Request Fulfillment
     Financial Management
Challenges Involved in CSM
     A Sample Scenario
     Complications of Cloud Centers
     Complexity Moderation Techniques and Tips
CSM Processes
     Change Management
     Problem Management
     Release Management
     Security Management
     Capacity Management
     Service Continuity Management
     Service Level Management
Cloud Management Solutions
     Key Attributes of Cloud Management Solutions
     Cloud Management Software Benefits
     The BMC Cloud Management Solution
     The VMware and NetApp Combination
     The BMC and VMware Combination
     Automation of CMDB for Instant Success in Change Management
     Innovations in Analytics and Correlation for Proactive Management and Efficient Root Cause Analysis
     Service Discovery and Impact Analysis to Align IT with Business
Semantic Technologies for Cloud information Management
     Data Integration
     Collaborative Documentation and Annotation
     Intelligent Information Access and Analytics
     The eCloudManager Ontology

Cloud Security Architecture (CSA)
Security Implications of Cloud Computing
Key Cloud Security Issues
     Cloud Data Confidentiality
     Cloud Data Integrity
     Cloud System Availability
Virtualization-Induced Cloud Security Issues
     Security Threats of the Intercloud
Cloud Security Solutions
     Crafting a Comprehensive Threat Model
     Security-Enablement Approaches
          Cloud Infrastructure Security
          Information Security
          Identity and Access Management
          End-User Devices Security
Emerging Cloud Security Mechanisms
     Policy-Based Cloud Security Enforcement (Ulrich Lang, ObjectSecurity, USA)
     Why Model-Driven Security (MDS)?
     Policy as a Service
     Why Policy-Based Automation at the Cloud? 
Information Lifecycle Management in the Cloud
     Data Dependability
     Data Location
     Data Isolation
     Data Recovery and Restoration
     Data Discovery
     Data Aggregation and Inference
     Data Abolition
Trusted Cloud Computing
Cloud Security Patterns
     Security Gateways
     Monitoring and Logging
     Security Token Services
          Policy Enforcement Points
     Cloud Security Best Practices
          Assessment and Reliability Audits
          Security Compliance
          Cloud Risk Management Framework
Why the SaaS-based "Security as a Service" Model?
     Security as a Service
     Security Compliance as a Service
     Business Continuity
     Global Coverage
Cloud Security Proprietary Solutions
     Joyent SmartOS: Hardened Kernel
          SmartMachine Security
Security Gateways
     Navajo Systems Virtual Private SaaS
     Vormetric Data Security
     Intel Service Gateway

Cloud Governance Architecture
Emergence of Cloud Services and Applications
     Clouds: The Robust and Resilient Platform for Business Services
Evolution of Governance Principles, Policies, Practices, and Products
     SOA Governance
     Strong and Sustainable Governance for Agility
     Data Governance
          Define What Data Governance Means to an Organization
     Determine Which Data Management Functions to Include
Overview of Cloud Governance
     Design-Time Cloud Governance
     Runtime Cloud Governance
     Policies for Runtime Cloud Governance
     Policy Engineering
     Policy Enforcement
     Virtual Policy Enforcement Point
     Policy Enforcement on Outgoing Traffic
     Policy Enforcement on Incoming Traffic
     Policy Enforcement on Cloud Services
A Methodology for Cloud Governance
     Cloud Evaluation Phase
     Cloud Governance Definition Phase
          Develop Relationship with Providers
     Cloud Governance Execution Phase
          Build Management and Monitoring Layer
          Set Up PEPs in DMZ
          Deploy Virtual PEPs in the Cloud
          Integrate Heavy Components Later
     Operational and Review Phase
Why is Cloud Governance Imperative?
     Guaranteeing Reliability
     Managing Cloud Services
     Managing Scale
     Managing Cloud Ecosystems
Cloud Governance: Best Practices
     Service Value Chain Enablement
     Process Innovation
     Risks Identification and Control
     Building Trust
Cloud Governance Solutions
     Things to Look for in a Cloud Governance Solution
Vordel CSB
     Elements of Cloud Governance
     Analytics of Cloud Usage
     Content Analysis
     Monitoring SLA
     Traffic Throttling
     Event Alerting
     Identity as the Key
     Connecting an Enterprise to a Cloud
     Composition of Cloud Services
     Enabling the CSP
     Enabling Cloud Service Brokerages

Cloud Onboarding Best Practices
A Perspective on Cloud Onboarding
     Benefits of Cloud Onboarding
     Application Migration: A Case Study
     Cloud Onboarding Use Cases
     Top Considerations for Cloud Onboarding
A Cloud Onboarding Process
     The Evaluate Step
     The Select Step
     The Migrate Step
Application Evaluation Criteria
Application Dependency Mapping
     The Optimize Step
     The Operate Step
Cloud Onboarding Services
     Emergence of Cloud Enterprises
Cloud Advisory and Advocacy Services
     Cloud Design Service     
     Cloud Development Service
     Cloud Management and Operations
     Cloud Implementation and Migration Services
     Cloud Protection Service
     Cloud Support Services
Cloud Center Transformation Implementation Services
     The Roles of the Cloud in Structuring and Sustaining Next-Generation Business Enterprises


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Having obtained the competitive UGC research fellowship, Pethuru Raj, PhD successfully obtained a PhD from Anna University, Chennai, India. He then obtained a CSIR fellowship to work as a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Computer Science and Automation (CSA), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore. Thereafter, he was granted a couple of international fellowships (JSPS and JST) to work as a research scientist for 3 years in two leading Japanese universities. Dr. Raj, worked as a lead architect in the corporate research (CR) division of Robert Bosch, India, for 1.5 years.

Dr. Raj has more than 12 years of IT industry experience. Primarily, he has contributed as a technical architect for 8 years and as a software product architect for 4 years. Currently, he is working as an enterprise architecture (EA) consultant focusing on EA-inspired business transformation capabilities. His ultimate aim is to provide technology advisory services to worldwide organizations and business enterprises to enable a smooth transition to be smarter in their operations, offerings, and outputs, by articulating and empowering them to adopt, adapt, and apply proven, potential, and promising technologies, architectural styles, and process optimization methods.

Dr. Raj has acquired good knowledge on some emerging technologies such as cloud computing, service-oriented architecture (SOA), event-driven architecture (EDA), and enterprise architecture (EA). Also, he has gleaned reusable knowledge in big data computing and Hadoop, realtime and real-world cloud analytics, machine-to-machine (M2M) integration/cyber physical systems (CPS), high-performance system design, and the development methods of smartphone applications. He has made use of the opportunities that came my way to focus on a few business domains, including telecommunication, retail, government, energy, and health care. Dr. Raj has contributed book chapters for a number of technology books that were edited by internationally acclaimed professors and published by leading publishing houses.


…a useful source of information for enterprise architects, managers, and directors of organizations, as well as students and researchers in the fields of Cloud computing and EA. It provides a thorough and timely investigation of the convergence of cloud computing, on one hand, and enterprise data, applications, and infrastructure architectures, on the other. It is a welcome addition to the body of existing knowledge in these fields and emerging new technologies.
—Zaigham Mahmood, School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Derby, UK