1st Edition

Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment

Edited By Morris H. Roberts, Jr., Robert C. Hale Copyright 2001
    364 Pages 75 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Risk assessment is the cornerstone of contemporary environmental protection. You must find the answers to questions such as: what might be the impacts of the new synthetic chemicals, what problems might arise from the normal operations of industry, what are the chances of accidental releases and how will they impact the environment? Understanding and assessing these risks is essential to sound environmental policy and management.

    The first book to address the application of the current National Research Council (NRC) risk assessment paradigm to the coastal marine environment, Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment covers topics that range from pollutants of emerging concern to bioavailability and bioaccumulation at the suborganismal through landscape levels. It explores the necessary applications for modifying the NRC paradigm and presents a series of steps to actually accomplish an effective assessment using the modified paradigm. The book highlights the logical framework for assessing causation, and measurement of toxicant fate and effect.

    The chapter authors bring together experiences from academia, private consultants, and government agencies, resulting in a rich mixture of experience and insights. Exploring the science of exposure, effect, and risk in coastal and estuarine environments, Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment gives you a building block approach to the fundamental components of risk assessment.

    Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment in Coastal and Estuarine Environments, M.H. Roberts, Jr., M.C. Newman, and R.C. Hale
    Application of Risk Assessment in Estuaries
    Forum Organization

    European Approaches to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment, M. Crane, N. Sorokin, J. Wheeler, A. Grosso, P. Whitehouse, and D. Morrit
    Legislative Procedure in the European Union
    Principles of Chemical Risk Assessment in the EU
    Retrospective Risk Assessments

    Emerging Contaminants of Concern in Coastal and Estuarine Environments, R.C. Hale and M.J. La Guardia
    Brominated Fire Retardants
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    Natural and Synthetic Estrogens
    Alkylphenol Polyethoxylates and Related Degradation Products
    Other Pharmaceuticals
    Non-Pharmaceutical Anti-Microbial Agents
    Personal Care Products
    Interactions of Multiple Stressors

    Enhancing Belief during Causality Assessments: Cognitive Idols or Bayes's Theorem? M.C. Newman and D.A. Evans
    Difficulty in Identifying Causality
    Bacon=s Idols of the Tribe
    Idols of the Theater and Certainty
    Assessing Causality in the Presence of Cognitive and Social Biases
    Bayesian Methods Can Enhance Belief or Disbelief
    A More Detailed Exploration of Bayes=s Approach
    Two Applications of the Bayesian Method

    Bioavailability, Biotransformation and Fate of Organic Contaminants in Estuarine Animals, R.F. Lee
    Fate of Xenobiotics after Uptake by Estuarine Animals

    The Bioaccumulation of Mercury, Methylmercury and Other Toxic Elements into Pelagic and Benthic Organisms, R.P. Mason
    Bioaccumulation in Pelagic Food Webs
    Bioaccumulation in Benthis Organisms
    Membrane Transport Processes

    Dietary Metals Exposure and Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms: Implications for Ecological Risk Assessment, C.E. Schlekat, B.-G. Lee, and S.N. Luoma
    Current Status of Regulatory Approaches for Metals in Aquatic Systems
    Processes Affecting Dietary Metal Exposure
    The Relative Importance of Dietary vs. Dissolved Metal Uptake for Bioaccumulation and Toxicity
    Toxicological Significace of Dietary Metals Exposure

    Endocrine Disruption in Fishes and Invertebrates: Issues for Saltwater Ecological Risk Assessment, K. Leung, J. Wheeler, D. Morritt, and M. Crane
    Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Saltwater Fishes and Invertebrates
    Developing a Coherent and Cost-Effective Risk Assessment Strategy for Saltwater
    Endocrine Disrupters

    The Use of Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) to Assess the Risks Persistent Organochlorines Pose to Marine Mammals, P.D. Jones, K. Kannan, A.L. Blankenship, and J.P. Giesy
    Problem Formulation
    Exposure Assessment
    Effects Assessment
    Risk Characterization

    Effects of Chronic Stress on Wildlife Populations: A Population Modeling Approach and Case Study, D.E. Nacci, T.R. Gleason, R. Gutjahr-Gobell, M. Huber, and W.R. Munns, Jr
    Population Matrix Modeling Approach
    A Stressor of Ecotoxicological Concern
    A Case Study
    A Population Modeling Approach and Case Study: Conclusions

    Structuring Population-Based Ecological Risk Assessments in a Dynamic Landscape, C.E. Mackay, J.A. Colton, and G. Bigham
    Ecological Risk Assessment Model
    Population-Based Risk Characterization

    Incremental Chemical Risks and Damages in Urban Estuaries: Spatial and Historical Ecosystem Analysis, D.F. Ludwig and T.J. Iannuzzi
    Risk and Damage Assessment: Foundations for Urban Ecosystems

    Epilogue - Ecological Risk Assessment in Coastal and Estuarine Environments, M.C. Newman, R.C. Hale, and M.H. Roberts, Jr.
    Chapter Contributions to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment


    Morris H. Roberts Jr., Robert C. Hale