3rd Edition

Cognitive Illusions Intriguing Phenomena in Thinking, Judgment, and Memory

Edited By Rüdiger F Pohl Copyright 2022
    490 Pages 24 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    490 Pages 24 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Cognitive Illusions explores a wide range of fascinating psychological effects in the way we think, judge and remember in our everyday lives. In this volume, Rüdiger F. Pohl brings together leading international researchers to define what cognitive illusions are and discuss their theoretical status: are such illusions proof of a faulty human information-processing system, or do they only represent by-products of otherwise adaptive cognitive mechanisms?

    The book describes and discusses 26 different cognitive illusions, with each chapter giving a profound overview of the respective empirical research including potential explanations, individual differences, and relevant applied perspectives. This edition has been thoroughly updated throughout, featuring new chapters on negativity bias, metacognition, and how we respond to fake news, along with detailed descriptions of experiments that can be used as classroom demonstration in every chapter.

    Demonstrating just how diverse cognitive illusions can be, it is a must read for all students and researchers of cognitive illusions, specifically, those focusing on thinking, reasoning, decision-making, and memory.


    1 What are cognitive illusions?
    Rüdiger F. Pohl

    Part I


    2 Conjunction fallacy
    John E. Fisk

    3 Base-rate neglect
    Gordon Pennycook, Christie Newton & Valerie A. Thompson

    4 Framing
    Anton Kühberger

    5 Confirmation bias – Myside bias
    Hugo Mercier

    6 Illusory correlation
    Klaus Fiedler, Karolin Salmen, & Florian Ermark

    7 Causality bias
    Helena Matute, Fernando Blanco, & Maria Manuela Moreno-Fernández

    8 Illusions of control
    Suzanne C. Thompson

    9 Wason selection task
    Jonathan St. B. T. Evans

    10 Belief bias in deductive reasoning

    Jonathan St. B. T. Evans, Linden J. Ball, & Valerie A. Thompson

    Part II


    11 Availability
    Anine Riege & Rolf Reber

    12 Judgments by representativeness
    Karl H. Teigen

    13 Anchoring effect
    Štěpán Bahník & Fritz Strack

    14 Illusory truth effect
    Lena Nadarevic

    15 Mere exposure effect
    Robert F. Bornstein & Catherine Craver-Lemley

    16 Halo effects
    Simon M. Laham & Joseph P. Forgas

    17 Assumed similarity
    Isabel Thielmann & Benjamin E. Hilbig

    18 Overconfidence
    Ulrich Hoffrage

    19 Metacognitive illusions
    Monika Undorf, Sofia Navarro-Báez, & Malte F. Zimdahl

    20 Fake news and participatory propaganda
    Stephan Lewandowsky

    21 Positivity biases
    Carla A. Zimmerman & W. Richard Walker

    Part III


    22 Moses illusion
    Felix Speckmann & Christian Unkelbach

    23 Survival processing effect
    Meike Kroneisen & Edgar Erdfelder

    24 Labelling and overshadowing effects
    Rüdiger F. Pohl

    25 Associative memory illusions
    Henry L. Roediger, III, & David A. Gallo

    26 Misinformation effect
    Emma PeConga, Jacqueline E. Pickrell, Daniel M. Bernstein, & Elizabeth F. Loftus

    27 Hindsight bias
    Rüdiger F. Pohl & Edgar Erdfelder


    Rüdiger F. Pohl is retired Professor of Psychology at the University of Mannheim, Germany. His research interests include cognitive illusions, heuristics and decision-making, and autobiographical memory. Teaching psychology, he held lectures in all areas of Cognitive and Developmental Psychology as well as in History and Methods of Psychology.