This volume provides an exceptional perspective on the nature, evolution, contributions and future of the field of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE). It is a resource to support both the teaching and practice of CSE. It accomplishes this through its organization into two complementary approaches to the topic. The first is an historical perspective: In the retrospections of leaders of the field, what have been the seminal achievements of cognitive human factors? What are the "lessons learned" that became foundational to CSE, and how did that foundation evolve into a broader systems view of cognitive work? The second perspective is both pedagogical and future-looking: What are the major conceptual issues that have to be addressed by CSE and how can a new generation of researchers be prepared to further advance CSE? Topics include studies of expertise, cognitive work analysis, cognitive task analysis, human performance, system design, cognitive modeling, decision making, human-computer interaction, trust in automation, teamwork and ecological interface design. A thematic focus will be on systems-level analysis, and such notions as resilience engineering and systems-level measurement. The book features broad coverage of many of the domains to which CSE is being applied, among them industrial process control, health care, decision aiding and aviation human factors. The book’s contributions are provided by an extraordinary group of leaders and pathfinders in applied psychology, cognitive science, systems analysis and system design. In combination these chapters present invaluable insights, experiences and continuing uncertainties on the subject of the field of CSE, and in doing so honor the career and achievements of Professor David D. Woods of Ohio State University.
Table of Contents
Introduction. Many Paths, One Journey: Pioneers of Cognitive Systems Engineering. Reflections on the Origins of Cognitive Systems Engineering. Medication Reconciliation Is a Window into "Ordinary" Work. Engineering the Morality of Cognitive Systems and the Morality and of Cognitive Systems Engineering. Understanding Cognitive Work. Adaptation in Sociotechnical Systems. A Taxonomy of Emergent Trusting in the Human-Machine Relationship. Improving Sensemaking Through the Design of Representations. Making Brittle Technologies Useful. Design-Induced Error and Error-Informed Design: A Two-Way Street. Speaking for the Second Victim. Work, and the Expertise of Workers. Designing Collaborative Planning Systems: Putting Joint Cognitive Systems Principles to Practice. The FireFox Fallacy: Why Intent Should be an Explicit Part of the External World in Human Automation Interaction. A One-Day Workshop for Teaching Cognitive Systems Engineering Skills. From Cognitive Systems Engineering to Human Systems Integration: A Short but Necessary Journey. Future Directions for Cognitive Engineering.
Dr. Philip J. Smith is a Professor in the Department of Integrated Systems Engineering at The Ohio State University and a Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. His research and teaching focus on cognitive systems engineering, human-automation interaction and the design of distributed work systems. This research has been supported by the FAA, NASA, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the U.S. Army and the U.S. Department of Education. Of particular significance has been his work on:
- The influence of brittle technologies on human-machine interactions.
- Constraint propagation as a conceptual approach to support asynchronous coordination and collaboration in the National Airspace System, including work on the design of airspace flow programs, coded departure routes, collaborative routing and the use of virtual queues to manage airport surface traffic.
- Interactive critiquing as a model to support effective human-machine cooperative problem solving through context sensitive feedback and the incorporation of metaknowledge into machine intelligence.
- Continuous adaptive planning.
Dr. Smith, his students and his colleagues have won numerous awards, including the Air Traffic Control Association David J. Hurley Memorial Award for Research in Collaborative Decision Making, the Airline Dispatchers Federation National Aviation Safety Award and best paper awards in Human Factors and Clinical Laboratory Science.
Hoffman is a recognized world leader in cognitive systems engineering and Human-Centered Computing. He is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Senior Member of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineers, and a Fulbright Scholar. His Ph.D