Combined Arms Warfare in Ancient Greece: From Homer to Alexander the Great and his Successors, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Combined Arms Warfare in Ancient Greece

From Homer to Alexander the Great and his Successors, 1st Edition

By Graham Wrightson

Routledge

248 pages

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Description

Combined Arms Warfare in Ancient Greece examines the timelines of military developments that led from the hoplite-based armies of the ancient Greeks to the hugely successful and multi-faceted armies of Philip II, Alexander the Great, and his Successors. It concentrates on the introduction and development of individual units and their tactical coordination and use in battle in what is termed "combined arms": the effective integration of different unit types into one cohesive battle plan and army allowing each unit to focus on its strengths without having to worry about its weaknesses.

This volume traces the development, and argues for the vital importance, of the use of combined arms in Greek warfare from the Archaic period onwards, especially concerning the Macedonian hegemony, through to its developmental completion in the form of fully "integrated warfare" at the battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. It argues crucially that warfare should never be viewed in isolation in individual states, regions, conflicts or periods but taken as a collective whole tracing the mutual influence of other cultures and the successful innovations that always result.

Wrightson analyses Greek and Macedonian warfare through the lens of modern military theoretical terminology, making this study accessible to those with a general interest in military history as well as those studying this specific period.

Table of Contents

List of figures

Acknowledgements

Introduction part 1: The purpose and methodology of the study

Putting Greek warfare in context

The Theory of Combined Arms

Methodology & Terminology – A conceptual methodological framework:

Combined Arms Warfare

Combined arms in the ancient world: A developmental continuum

‘Integrated warfare’

The process of moving from a basic use of combined arms to integrated warfare

A methodology for examining this process

The focus of this study

Introduction part 2: The theory of combined arms

Combined arms vs. integrated warfare

The effect of terrain on warfare and units

Unit categorization and subdivisions

Infantry – the hands, arms, and chest of the army

Regular Heavy Infantry – the chest and breast plate of the army

Elite heavy infantry – the hands of the army

Light Infantry – the arms of the army

Missile troops

Archers

Javelin men

Slingers

Peltasts

Elite light infantry – the elbows of the army

Cavalry – the feet of the army according to Iphicrates

Heavy Cavalry – the feet of the army

Chariots – earlier feet of the army

Elephants – the joints of the army

Light Cavalry – the legs of the army

Non-missile light cavalry

Horse archers

Field Artillery

Conclusions: The benefit of Combined Arms and Integrated Warfare

Section 1: The Hoplite Revolution in Greece

Chapter 1: Homeric warfare and the introduction of the hoplite

Primary Sources for Greek warfare

Homeric Warfare

Sources

Heavy Infantry

Missile infantry

Infantry Combined arms

Chariots

Cavalry

Combined Arms conclusions

Chapter 2: Archaic Greece – the dominance of the heavy infantry phalanx

Sources

Infantry

Hoplites and the phalanx

Hoplites as individual soldiers

The crucial importance of maintaining balance in hoplite combat

Early hoplites

Tactical separation of light and heavy infantry

Chariots

Cavalry

Combined Arms

Chapter 3: Persia vs. Greece - The advantages of the heavy infantryman

The Persian Empire and its (mis)use of a combined arms army

Sources

Infantry

Cavalry

Combined arms

The Persian Wars: the mirage of the hoplite’s superiority

Sources

Persian armies exposed without using combined arms properly – Marathon

Combined Arms Conclusions

The beginnings of successful combined arms in Greek armies - Plataea

Xerxes’ army

The Greek army

Infantry

Cavalry

The battle

Combined Arms

Combined Arms conclusions

Section 2: The implementation of Combined arms in Greek warfare

Chapter 4: The Peloponnesian War - Combined arms innovation on the battlefield

Sources

Infantry

Cavalry

Combined arms

Sicily and the Athenian siege of Syracuse – large scale combined arms in practice

Sources

Early warfare in Sicily

The Athenian Campaign

Combined Arms

Combined arms conclusions

Chapter 5: The Corinthian War and Iphicrates: Light infantry integration

Sources

Infantry

Cavalry

Combined arms

Combined Arms Conclusions

Chapter 6: The Theban hegemony - the inclusion of heavy cavalry

Sources

Infantry

Cavalry

Combined arms

Combined arms conclusions

Section 3: Macedon and Integrated Warfare

Chapter 7: Philip II – The sarissa phalanx and heavy cavalry

Sources

Infantry

Cavalry

Field artillery

Combined Arms

Chaeronea – Macedonian combined arms versus Greek diverse units

Sources

The Battle

Combined arms

Combined Arms Conclusions

Chapter 8: Alexander the Great - linking the heavy cavalry and the phalanx

Sources

Infantry

Cavalry

Artillery

Combined Arms

Combined Arms Conclusions

Issus and Gaugamela: Integrated warfare in action

Sources

Issus

Combined arms

Gaugamela

Combined Arms

Combined Arms Conclusions

Chapter 9: The Successors - War elephants and integrated warfare

Sources

Combined arms

Paraetacene

Combined Arms

Gabiene

Combined Arms

Ipsus

Combined Arms

Combined Arms Conclusions

Conclusion - Greece, Persia and Macedon: The success of combined arms and integrated warfare

Bibliography

Index

About the Author

Graham Wrightson is Assistant Professor of History at South Dakota State University, USA. His research focuses primarily on Macedonian military history with a special focus on military manuals and the sarissa phalanx. He also examines comparative warfare between cultures and eras and their influence on each other. He has published multiple articles and papers on Macedonian warfare, has jointly edited three books, and has produced a textbook for the standard US university first-year survey course Western Civilization 1.

About the Series

Routledge Monographs in Classical Studies

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HIS002000
HISTORY / Ancient / General