1st Edition

# Combustion Science and Engineering

By Kalyan Annamalai, Ishwar K. Puri Copyright 2007
1178 Pages 300 B/W Illustrations
by CRC Press

1184 Pages
by CRC Press

Also available as eBook on:

Students embarking on their studies in chemical, mechanical, aerospace, energy, and environmental engineering will face continually changing combustion problems, such as pollution control and energy efficiency, throughout their careers. Approaching these challenges requires a deep familiarity with the fundamental theory, mathematics, and physical concepts of combustion. Based on more than two decades of teaching experience, Combustion Science and Engineering lays the necessary groundwork while using an illustrative, hands-on approach.

Taking a down-to-earth perspective, the book avoids heavy mathematics in the first seven chapters and in Chapter 17 (pollutants formation and destruction), but considers molecular concepts and delves into engineering details. It begins with an outline of thermodynamics; basics of thermochemistry and chemical equilibrium; descriptions of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels; chemical kinetics and mass transfer; and applications of theory to practical systems. Beginning in chapter 8, the authors provide a detailed treatment of differential forms of conservation equations; analyses of fuel combustion including jet combustion and boundary layer problems; ignition; flame propagation; interactive and group combustion; pollutant formation and control; and turbulent combustion.

In addition, this textbook includes abundant examples, illustrations, and exercises, as well as spreadsheet software in combustion available for download. This software allows students to work out the examples found in the text. Combustion Science and Engineering imparts the skills and foundational knowledge necessary for students to successfully approach and solve new problems.

Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics
Introduction
Combustion Terminology
Matter and Its Properties
Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics
Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Summary
Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems
Introduction
Overall Reactions
Gas Analyses
Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems
Thermochemistry
Summary
Appendix
Reaction Direction and Equilibrium
Introduction
Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium Relations
Vant Hoff Equation
Adiabatic Flame Temperature with Chemical Equilibrium
Gibbs Minimization Method
Summary
Appendix
Fuels
Introduction
Gaseous Fuels
Liquid Fuels
Solid Fuels
Other Fuels
Size Distributions of Liquid and Solid Fuels
Summary
Appendix
Chemical Kinetics
Introduction
Reaction Rates: Closed and Open Systems
Elementary Reactions and Molecularity
Multiple Reaction Types
Chain Reactions and Reaction Mechanisms
Global Mechanisms for Reactions
Reaction Rate Theory and the Arrhenius Law
Second Law and Global and Backward Reactions
The Partial Equilibrium and Reaction Rate Expression
Timescales for Reaction
Solid–Gas (Heterogeneous) Reactions and Pyrolysis of Solid Fuels
Summary
Appendix
Mass Transfer
Introduction
Heat Transfer and the Fourier Law
Mass Transfer and Fick’s Law
Molecular Theory
Generalized Form of Fourier’s and Fick’s Laws for a Mixture, with Simplifications
Summary
Appendix: Rigorous Derivation for Multicomponent Diffusion
First Law Applications
Introduction
Generalized Relations in Molar Form
Closed-System Combustion
Open Systems
Solid Carbon Combustion
Droplet Burning
Summary
Conservation Relations
Introduction
Simple Diffusive Transport Constitutive Relations
Conservation Equations
Generalized Transport
Simplified Boundary-Layer-Type Problems
Shvab–Zeldovich Formulation
Turbulent Flows
Summary
Appendix
Combustion of Solid Fuels, Carbon, and Char
Introduction
Carbon Reactions
Conservation Equations for a Spherical Particle
Nondimensional Conservation Equations and Boundary Conditions
Interfacial Conservation Equations or BCs
Solutions for Carbon Particle Combustion
Thermal NOx from Burning Carbon Particles
Non-Quasi-Steady Nature of Combustion of Particle
Element Conservation and Carbon Combustion
Porous Char
Summary
Appendix: d Law and Stefan Flow Approximation
Diffusion Flames — Liquid Fuels
Introduction
Evaporation, Combustion, and d2 Law
Model/Physical Processes
Governing Equations
Solutions
Convection Effects
Multicomponent-Isolated-Drop Evaporation and Combustion
Summary
Combustion in Boundary Layers
Introduction
Phenomenological Analyses
Generalized Conservation Equations and Boundary Conditions
Interface Boundary Conditions
Generalized Numerical Solution Procedure for BL Equations in Partial Differential Form
Normalized Variables and Conservation Equations
Similarity Solutions–BL Equations
Applications of Generalized Similarity Equations to Various Flow Systems
Solutions for Boundary Layer Combustion of Totally Gasifying Fuels
Combustion Results for Fuels Burning under Convection
Excess Fuel and Excess Air under Convection
Summary
Combustion of Gas Jets
Introduction
Burke–Schumann (B–S) Flame
Modification to B–S Analyses
Laminar Jets
Planar Laminar Jets
Circular Jets
Summary of Solutions for 2-D and Circular Jets
Stoichiometric Contours for 2-D and Circular Jets, Liftoff, and Blow-Off
Jets in Coflowing Air: Jet Flame Structure in Strongly Coflowing Air for 2-D and Circular Jets
Turbulent Diffusion Flames
Partially Premixed Flame
Summary
Ignition and Extinction
Introduction
Modes of Ignition
Ignition of Gas Mixtures in Rigid Systems: Uniform System
Constant-Pressure Systems
Ignition of Solid Particle
Ignition of Nonuniform Temperature Systems—Steady-State Solutions
Summary
Deflagration and Detonation
Introduction
Conservation Equations
Solutions for Rayleigh and Hugoniot Curves
Flame Propagation into Unburned Mixture
Summary
Appendices
Flame Propagation and Flammability Limits
Introduction
Phemenological Analysis
Rigorous Analysis
Flame Stretching
Determination of Flame Velocity
Flammability Limits
Quenching Diameter
Minimum Ignition Energy for Spark Ignition
Stability of Flame in a Premixed Gas Burner
Turbulent Flame Propagation
Summary
Interactive Evaporation and Combustion
Introduction
Simplified Analyses
Arrays and Point Source Method
Combustion of Clouds of Drops and Carbon Particles
Terminology
Governing Equations for Spherical Cloud
Results
Relation between Group Combustion and Drop Array Studies
Interactive Char/Carbon Combustion
Multicomponent Array Evaporation
Summary
Pollutants Formation and Destruction
Introduction
Emission-Level Expressions and Reporting
Effects of Pollutants on Environment and Biological Systems
Pollution Regulations
NOx Sources and Production Mechanisms
NOx Formation Parameters
Stationary Source NOx Control
CO2 Sequestration
Carbon Monoxide: CO
SOx Formation and Destruction
Soot
Mercury Emissions
Summary
An Introduction to Turbulent Combustion
Introduction
Turbulence Characteristics
Averaging Techniques
Instantaneous and Average Governing Equations
Governing Differential Equations: Axisymmetric Case and Mixture-Fraction PDF Combustion Model
Turbulent Combustion Modeling (Diffusion Flames)
Probability Density Function
Premixed and Partially Premixed Turbulent Flames: Modeling Approaches
Summary
Appendix I: Cylindrical Coordinate System with Particle-Laden Flow
Problems
Formulae
Appendix A
Appendix B
References
Index

### Biography

Kalyan Annamalai, Ishwar K. Puri

"There is no doubt regarding the comprehensive coverage of the topic in this book which, I believe, will be well received by the academic and professional communities."

– Gary F. Bennett, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Toledo, in Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008